|どう です か？
desu ka? How is
(it)? [Use this for asking about food, or anything that is being done now]
どう でした か？ dou deshita ka? How was (it)? [Use this to find out about past experiences - movie, last night's date, molded pizza you just ate...]
yatte? How do you do it? [Ask this when you are not sure how to do
どう しました か？ dou shimashita ka? What happened? [Ask this if someone looks sad or something has happened]
どうしよう dou shiyou What shall (I or we) do? [This is often used when you can't make a decision and want help... doushiyou, ne!]
どう する の？dou suru no? What will you do? [When you want to encourage someone to make a decision -- Well, what will you do?]
If you want to state your opinion and then encourage someone to agree, use deshou.
firipin wa atsui deshou?
The Philippines is hot, isn't it?
[You are expecting a 'yes' answer]
It hurts, doesn't it?
[You see someone who has just slammed their head in the low doorway]
But usually でしょう is used to mean 'probably':
Ame ga furu deshou ne.
It will probably rain, don't you think?
And another common usage is どうでしょう meaning 'how about...' or 'what do you think about'
udon wa dou deshou?
How about some Udon?
Meet the wonderful 'と to.' Mr. と can act as a quotation marker ("). Don't confuse this with the と that means 'and.' Very often if you are quoting someone or some source. This is best shown with examples:
ore wa su-paman to iimashita.
He said, "I am Superman."
ano e wa juu seiki ni tsukutta to kaite arimasu.
The book says (it is written) that this painting was made in the 10th century.
It can also be used to mark sound effects of things or animals:
ano inu wa 'wan' to iimashita.
That dog barked, "bark"
There are many other usages for 'to.' Paying attention to each usage will help you get a good grasp.
With `i` adjectives the `i` changes to a
`ku` before adding the `nai`...
`na` adjectives simply drop the `na` (which
is really only used before nouns) and add `ja nai` or `ja arimasen` (or
dewa nai & dewa arimasen)...
To learn more about adjectives click here.
話せます hanasemasu - can speak becomes...
watashi wa nihongo ga hanasemasen.
(I) can`t speak Japanese.
分かります wakarimasu - understand becomes...
watashi wa eigoga wakarimasen.
(I) don`t understand English.
If you can make the -masu form, just drop the す and add the せん。
You may have noticed there are no `no` words needed to make a negative like in English. You simply modify the verb`s ending.
To make the negative in the plain, or simple, form by taking the basic stem and adding ない to it.
With the `ru` verbs you simply drop the
る and add ない as in 忘れる wasureru (to forget)...
nihongo o wasurenai.
(I) don`t forget Japanese.
And for the `u` verbs we change the ending
`u` sound to a `a` sound as in 書く kaku -> 書か...
tegami o kakanai.
(I) don`t write letters.
Finally we come to する and the other irregular verbs.
する is しない in the simple form and しません in the polite form
sukaidaibingu o shimasen.
(I) don`t do sky diving.
And 来る kuru is 来ない konai and 来ません kimasen in the formal...
gojira ga konai.
Godzilla doesn`t come.
To review the 3 types of verbs click here.
If you plan on speaking Japanese these two words are very useful.予定 yotei and つもり tsumori予定 yotei and つもり are very similar in meaning and usage. 予定 conveys more of a `schedule` feel whereas つもり is more of a `conviction of doing something. All you have to do is to stick either on the end of a verb (simple form)...
To add つもり or 予定 to any verb just find the simple form...
nihon ni iku tsumori (or yotei) desu.
I intend to go to Japan.
[if you use tsumori, you `intend` to go one way or another; if you use yotei you already have a hard schedule set to leave at a certain time.]
Here is how you add it to a する verb
anata to kekkon suru tsumori (or yotei) desu.
I intend to marry you.
You can also use it with nouns by sticking a の before the tsumori and after adjectives. But for now concentrate on the verb usage.
Let`s quickly go over some common Punctuation thingies:
the まる acts just like our period by ending the sentence. It looks like a ball - maru
|the てん acts like a comma. This is often found after は as in わたしは、あなたが好きです。 (I, like you)|
「 and 」
|These brackets hold quotations and work like our "" marks|
You should know はず. It is easy and useful, therefore you have no excuse :)
Hazu shows an expectation that something should happen. In other words, you are pretty sure something is true. Let`s see how it works...
To add はず to any adjective just add it...
sono kaban wa, takai hazu desu.
That bag must be expensive.
[It is expected to be expensive]
Just add it to the simple form of any verb
anata wa, gojira o shitteiru hazu desu.
You should/must know Godzilla.
We have looked at some 'becauses' that mainly act as a preposition. ので comes at the end of the phrase.
In English we start the phrase with `because`; in Japanese you often say the reason first and then the because...
Just add it after an adjective...
sono kaban wa takai node, zutto tsukau tsumori desu.
Since that bag was expensive, I plan on using it for a long time.
Just add it to the simple form of any verb
gojira ga kuru node, toukyou wa kowai tokoro desu.
Since Godzilla comes, Tokyo is a scary place.
After a noun or a -na adjective add a NA
watashi wa mada gakusei na node, okane ga nai .
Because I am still a student, I don`t have any money.
add it after an adjective...
Use it as a counter:
And the following are a few of the adverbial usages of 何