To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).You can used it with or without the final 'desu ka' in conversation.
saikin wa dou desu ka?
How's it going recently?
ko-hi- wa dou?
How's the coffee? or it could mean How about some coffee?
tenki yohou wa dou?
How's the weather forecast looking?
Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)
This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example, 最後のクーキーを食べてしまった。 I unfortunately ate the last cookie. Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.
The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb
zenbu no okane o tsukatte shimaimashita.
Unfortunately, I spent all my money.
watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta.
Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese.
Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau
shiken ni ochichatta.
I flunked the test unfortunately.
or in the present tense
ke-ki o zenbu tabechau.
I will eat all the cake.
An important point by Mukade in the forums:
In the Kansai area, the use of ちゃった is limited to female speakers.
I learned both in the classroom, of course, since they are standard dialect. But when I moved here to Osaka, people started asking me if I was gay, since I kept using ちゃった all the time.
If I could help prevent someone else from having to go through the same "hard knocks" learning process that I did, it would make me very happy.
Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...
add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb
yukkuri hanashite kudasai.
Please speak slowly.
motto otona rashiku shite kudasai.
Please act more grown-up.
koko de migi ni magatte kudasai.
Please turn right here.
Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."
In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.
sono hon o kudasai.
Please give me that book.
go hyaku en o kudasai.
Please give me 500 yen.
のうえに no ue ni - on top of
机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.
のしたに no shita ni - under...
机のしたに本があります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.
の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...
机の後ろに本があります。 tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book behind the desk.
Why don't we study a little more?
dokoka de tabemasen ka?
Why don't we eat somewhere.
nanika nomimasen ka?
Would you like something to drink. or Why don't we have a drink.
The context decides if the meaning should be 'why don't WE' or 'Would YOU.'
Pronounced o but written in Japanese as wo. Simply put, を is the 'direct object marker or particle' which indicates the previous word is the direct object. There are cases when the English would not consider it a direct object, though. Learn some examples and give it a try. This particle is one of the easier ones...
watashi wa ringo o tabemashita.
I ate an apple. (apple is the を)
ongaku o kikitai desu.
I want to listen to music. (music is the を)
terebi o kau tsumori desu .
I intend to buy a TV. (tsumori means'intend to'; TV is the を)
In most cases the particle へ can be used interchangeably with に. But に has a wider application so for now just stick with に
Showing movement toward... Like 'to'
nihon ni ikitai.
I want to go to Japan. (direction TO Japan)
doko ni ikitai desu ka.
Where do you want to go?
Meaning 'on' or 'in'
kami ni e o kakimashita.
I drew a picture on a piece of paper.
In time - 'at'
roku ji ni aimashou.
Let's meet at 6.
This is used mainly for location.
Used for location of where something happens
depa-to de boushi o kaimashita.
I bought a hat at the Department store.
nihon de nani o shimashita ka.
In Japan, what did you do?
Observe the difference between に and で:
makudonarudo ni ikitai.
I want to go to McDonalds.
makudonarudo de tabetai.
I want to eat at McDonalds.
This is the 'subject marker / particle'.
ame ga futteimasu.
There is a subtile difference between WA and GA and I don't pretend to try to completely explain it. Years from now, you will still make WA/GA mistakes. Still, in general you can say WA is the main TOPIC and GA is the more specific SUBJECT at hand. In the above example we say it is raining. The topic isn't about rain. We are simply stating the circumstances at the moment and the subject of that particular sentence is rain. If we were to talk all about rain, we would probably start with WA as in:
ame wa sora kara futte kuru mizu desu.
As for rain, it is water that falls from the sky. (You may go on to say more about the overall topic of rain.)
Used with SUKI
watashi wa neko ga suki.
I like cats.
Question words always use GA
nani ga oishii?
What tastes good?