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Low-level Grammar lookup table

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Low-level Grammar lookup table

Postby SaigoNoBan » Fri 12.23.2005 1:03 pm

こんばんは! Taking a few mock tests for JLPT4, I found that many (TRICKY!) questions concern what verb mode precedes a given word / construction. So, I arranged all the various (basic) grammar expressions I have studied so far, sorting them by the verb mode they use. I hope other beginners like me find this useful.
Thanks well in advance to coco, harisenbon, and all the other pros that I'm sure will be so kind and correct any mistakes and/or fill in any missing pieces. Just keep in mind this is intended for beginners and low intermediates ください. 

"−>" is how you construct the mode from the dictionary form.
"−−>" means "verb mode followed by".


て - Form (aka Gerund)
(For example する −> して、 たべる −> たべて、 わらう −> わらって)

−−> ください Polite imperative, please

−−> から After...

−−> も Even if...

−−> ほしい (欲しい) ...is desired, would like to 

−−> いる Present progressive, be doing sth.

−−> いく (行く) To go do sth.

−−> くる (来る) To go, do sth., and come back

−−> みる To try to do sth.

−−> しまう To end up doing sth., idea of "unfortunately"

−−> は いけません ...is forbidden, must not do

−−> も いい 「です」 ...is OK, am allowed to
     (も かまいません)




"indefinite base" − The ます form without the ます
(For example する −> します −> 、 たべる −> たべます −> たべ、わらう −> わらいます −> わらい

−−> ましょう Let's...!

−−> やすい Easy to...

−−> にくい Hard to...

−−> ながら While..., simultaneous actions

−−> はじめる Start doing sth.
     (だした)

−−> あう (会う) Do sth. together, not sure about this one!!



Plain past − the て form but with the final vowel 'a'
(For example する −> した、 たべる −> たべた、 わらう −> わらった)

−−> ら Weak conditional (when/if...)

−−> ほう が いい 「です」 It would be better to, should (advice)




Plain form aka Dictionary form (* see note at the bottom *)
(For example する、 たべる、 わらう)

−−> から Because...

−−> ので Because...; 
ので can also follow い-Adjectives, and Nouns+な and Adjectives+な

−−> のに Although..., despite...

−−> まえ に (前に) Before...

−−> なら If...; なら can also follow nouns, adjectives & adverbs

−−> -う + えば Drop the final sound ’u’, add
 えば and you have a Strong If


−−> ときに (時に) When...


−−> はず (はず) 「です」 Must.../Should...

−−> みたい Looks like...

−−> そう だ / そう です I heard that..., rumors
−−> らしい 「です」 (Ditto)

−−> でしょう / だろう Probably (future)
With question mark: isn't it?/how about...?

−−> ひつよう (必要) が ある Need to...

−−> つもり  (積もり) だ/です Plan to...
−−> よてい (嵐閨j Scheduled to...

−−> こと が ある It happens that..., occasionally
−−> こと に して いる To be accustomed to, habit
−−> こと に する Decide (first and second person)
−−> こと に なる Decide (third person)

−−> べからず Forbidden


NOTES:
* Most constructions with the dictionary form also work with the plain past, with an obvious meaning shift.

** There is one construction that works with all three verb modi, with different meanings:

Plain form −−> ところ だ/です Going-to-future
て - form   −−> いる ところ だ/です Present progressive, be doing sth.
Plain past −−> ところ だ/です Having just finished something, similar to the French "venir de"
Last edited by SaigoNoBan on Fri 12.23.2005 1:25 pm, edited 1 time in total.
とうとう戻ってきました!^_^ お待たせしました
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RE: Low-level Grammar lookup table

Postby spank » Fri 12.23.2005 7:11 pm

wow, great work. That is some very useful information. B)
spank
 
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Joined: Wed 11.30.2005 1:36 am


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