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南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

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南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby richvh » Sun 08.24.2008 11:36 am

I'm taking another crack at the Satomi Hakkenden, this time taking a look at an online site that has the first 30 chapters online in old orthography. The first sentence in this version (which can be found on page 6 of this pdf) doesn't correspond to anything in the modern language, abridged version I have.

The first sentence, in old orthography, as it appears in the PDF:
京都(きやうと)の將軍(せうぐん)、鎌倉(かまくら)の副將(ふくせう)、武威(ぶゐ)衰(おとろ)へて偏執(へんしう)し、世(よ)は戦國(せんこく)となりし比(ころ)、難(なん)を東海(とうかい)の濱(ほとり)に避(さけ)て、土地(とち)を闢(ひら)き、基業(もとゐ)を興(おこ)し、子孫(しそん)十世(じつせ)に及(およ)ぶまで、房総(あはかづさ)の國主(こくしゆ)たる、里見(さとみ)治部(ぢぶの)大夫(たいふ)義実(よしざね)朝臣(あそん)の、事蹟(じせき)をつら/\考(かむがふ)るに、清和(せいわ)の皇別(みすゑ)、源氏(げんじ)の嫡流(ちやくりう)、鎮守府(ちんじゆふ)將軍(せうぐん)八幡(はちまん)太郎(たらう)、義家(よしいへ)朝臣(あそん)、十一(じういつ)世(せ)、里見(さとみ)治部(ぢぶの)少輔(せうゆう)源(みなもとの)季基(すゑもと)ぬしの嫡男(ちやくなん)也。


Rendered into modern orthography, as best I can figure:
京都(きょうと)の将軍(しょうぐん)、鎌倉(かまくら)の副将(ふくしょう)、武威(ぶい)衰(おとろ)えて偏執(へんしゅう)し、世(よ)は戦国(せんごく)となった頃(ころ)、難(なん)を東海(とうかい)の浜(ほとり)に避(さけ)て、土地(とち)を開(ひら)き、基業(もとい)を興(おこ)し、子孫(しそん)十世(じっせ)に及(およ)ぶまで、房総(あわかずさ)の国主(こくしゅ)である、里見(さとみ)治部(じぶの)大夫(たいふ)義実(よしざね)朝臣(あそん)の、事蹟(じせき)をつらつら考(かんが)えるに、清和(せいわ)の皇別(みすい)、源氏(げんじ)の嫡流(ちゃくりゅう)、鎮守府(ちんじゅふ)将軍(しょうぐん)八幡(はちまん)太郎(たろう)、義家(よしいえ)朝臣(あそん)、十一(じゅういっ)世(せ)、里見(さとみ)治部(じぶの)少輔(しょうゆう)源(みなもとの)季基(すえもと)ぬしの嫡男(ちゃくなん)である。


Questions: does 武威衰えて偏執し apply to both 京都の将軍 and 鎌倉の副将? What exactly does 武威衰えて偏執し mean? "Tended to lose power"? What the heck are the 10th and 11th generations (十世 and 十一世) being counted from, the descent from the Seiwa emperor? The Satomi as a distinct clan? Or is this somehow being counted backward from some later person (the writer?), since 義実 seems to be generation 10 while his father, 季基, seems to be generation 11? Should the に after 考る be changed to another particle? How does 鎮守府将軍八幡太郎 fit in? Is that another title for 義実, or is that completely separate, applying to 義家? Is 義家 the clan founder (descendant of the Seiwa emperor and the senior branch of the Minamoto clan)?
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby vkladchik » Sun 08.24.2008 1:49 pm

Questions: does 武威衰えて偏執し apply to both 京都の将軍 and 鎌倉の副将? What exactly does 武威衰えて偏執し mean? "Tended to lose power"?


I am no expert, but I just got my Classical Japanese books (Shirane), so I'm going to take a crack at this. I hope you don't mind the guesswork. (In other words, this is all guesswork. :oops: )

From a purely modern Japanese point of view, I would assume 武威が衰えて applies to both the shogun in Kyoto and the fukusho in Kamakura (were these guys on the same team, or fighting?). The lack of a single dominant player (=武威) created an atmosphere of mutual suspicion (偏執=prejudice, suspicion, paranoia), which led to the fighting which defined the era (and gave it its name).

What the heck are the 10th and 11th generations (十世 and 十一世) being counted from, the descent from the Seiwa emperor?


"~~、 基業を興し、子孫十世に及ぶまで、房総の国主である、里見治部大夫義実朝臣の、事蹟をつらつら考える" is confusing, because it makes it sound like we're going to "consider" Yoshizane's achievements over ten generations (biologically impossible).

You know, I don't think there's enough information just in the text to figure it out. I'll take a look at my 日本史事典 and other references and see if I can piece something together. Maybe someone else who actually knows some Japanese history can answer in the meantime.

Should the に after 考る be changed to another particle?


I think it means 考えるにあたって, being used as an introductory phrase. "We will consider the events of ..."
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby richvh » Sun 08.24.2008 3:46 pm

The 将軍 and the 副将 were fighting, I believe. The first bit of the modern language, abridged edition:
京都にすむ室町幕府六代足利義教(あしかがよしのり)、関東管領(かんれい)ににんじられ、鎌倉にすむ足利持氏(もちうじ)とのあいだに不和が生じた。持氏が自立のこころざしをいだいたからである。義教の軍と、それを支持する持氏の家来上杉憲実(のりざね)が合体し、持氏とその嫡子(ちゃくしょ)義成(よしなり)をせめた。

I think 足利持氏 is the 副将 in question.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby vkladchik » Sun 08.24.2008 6:38 pm

richvh wrote:The 将軍 and the 副将 were fighting, I believe. The first bit of the modern language, abridged edition:
京都にすむ室町幕府六代足利義教(あしかがよしのり)、関東管領(かんれい)ににんじられ、鎌倉にすむ足利持氏(もちうじ)とのあいだに不和が生じた。持氏が自立のこころざしをいだいたからである。義教の軍と、それを支持する持氏の家来上杉憲実(のりざね)が合体し、持氏とその嫡子(ちゃくしょ)義成(よしなり)をせめた。

I think 足利持氏 is the 副将 in question.

Hmmm... my "History of Japan" by Sansom has a section describing the Seiwa Genji uji with a couple of charts. The relevant lineage is:

Mitsunaka (912-97?) > Yorinobu (968-1048) [ancestor of the Settsu Genji and the Kawachi Genji] > Yoriyoshi (998-1082(?)) [Kawachi Genji from here on] > Yoshiie (1041-1108) [Hachiman Taro, Chieftain of the Clan] > [this is skipped, but I'm guessing Yoshizane (and others?)] ... > Yoritomo (1147-99)

This might also be useful:

List of Characters in Hakkenden

A good long look at this might also help me understand what's going on.

By the way, Wikipedia said that NSH is 98 maki long. How long is that compared to, say, Genji? It's also interesting to find out that it was written at a time when actual spoken Japanese was pretty close to what is spoken today.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby Yudan Taiteki » Sun 08.24.2008 6:57 pm

richvh wrote:The first sentence, in old orthography, as it appears in the PDF:
京都(きやうと)の將軍(せうぐん)、鎌倉(かまくら)の副將(ふくせう)、武威(ぶゐ)衰(おとろ)へて偏執(へんしう)し、世(よ)は戦國(せんこく)となりし比(ころ)、難(なん)を東海(とうかい)の濱(ほとり)に避(さけ)て、土地(とち)を闢(ひら)き、基業(もとゐ)を興(おこ)し、子孫(しそん)十世(じつせ)に及(およ)ぶまで、房総(あはかづさ)の國主(こくしゆ)たる、里見(さとみ)治部(ぢぶの)大夫(たいふ)義実(よしざね)朝臣(あそん)の、事蹟(じせき)をつら/\考(かむがふ)るに、清和(せいわ)の皇別(みすゑ)、源氏(げんじ)の嫡流(ちやくりう)、鎮守府(ちんじゆふ)將軍(せうぐん)八幡(はちまん)太郎(たらう)、義家(よしいへ)朝臣(あそん)、十一(じういつ)世(せ)、里見(さとみ)治部(ぢぶの)少輔(せうゆう)源(みなもとの)季基(すゑもと)ぬしの嫡男(ちやくなん)也。


Questions: does 武威衰えて偏執し apply to both 京都の将軍 and 鎌倉の副将?


Yes. In older Japanese it is very common to have multiple subjects separated by a comma with no particle.

What exactly does 武威衰えて偏執し mean? "Tended to lose power"?


To me it means that their power began to weaken and they holed up and stopped paying attention to the world around them (i.e. the way the Heian aristocrats ignored the rising warrior classes).

What the heck are the 10th and 11th generations (十世 and 十一世) being counted from, the descent from the Seiwa emperor?


Yoshizane Ason is the ancestor, I believe. He was able to avoid the calamities in Japan by traveling abroad.

Should the に after 考る be changed to another particle?
[/quote]

I'm not entirely sure what you mean here; if you're wondering whether the に is a typo, it's not. If I am reading the text correctly, the に essentially means "and" (sort of like a -te form). The の before that is equivalent to が, so it's Yoshizane Ason who is thinking carefully about the future.

The rest I'm not so sure about; I think there are two characters being discussed with their associated titles but I'm not sure.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby richvh » Sun 08.24.2008 7:18 pm

Mitsunaka (912-97?) > Yorinobu (968-1048) [ancestor of the Settsu Genji and the Kawachi Genji] > Yoriyoshi (998-1082(?)) [Kawachi Genji from here on] > Yoshiie (1041-1108) [Hachiman Taro, Chieftain of the Clan] > [this is skipped, but I'm guessing Yoshizane (and others?)] ... > Yoritomo (1147-99)

It's set in the 1400s, so Suemoto, Yoshizane and Yoshizane's descendants would be well after Yoritomo. The capture of Ashikaga Mochiuji and his eldest son at Houkokuji in Kamakura was in 1437; the siege of Yuuki Castle in Shimousa ended in 1441. Satomi Suemoto and his teen-aged son Yoshizane were among the besieged; at the fall of the castle, Yoshizane was ordered by his father to flee and re-establish the house.

Yoshizane Ason is the ancestor, I believe. He was able to avoid the calamities in Japan by traveling abroad.

Satomi Yoshizane is the main character of at least the first part of the epic (I haven't read past 13回 in the abridged version); I assume Ason is a title he eventually picks up. Fleeing the fall of Yuuki castle, he crosses the bay to Awa where through luck and skill he overthrows a rebel lord and eventually the other lords of the province, becoming lord of all Awa. I think this covers the "fleeing the troubles" bit (難を東海の浜に避けて)
Should the に after 考る be changed to another particle?
I'm not entirely sure what you mean here; if you're wondering whether the に is a typo, it's not. If I am reading the text correctly, the に essentially means "and" (sort of like a -te form)

I wasn't implying that it was a typo, I was wondering how to render it in modern language.

Edit: An attempt at translating this sentence.
京都(きょうと)の将軍(しょうぐん)、鎌倉(かまくら)の副将(ふくしょう)、武威(ぶい)衰(おとろ)えて偏執(へんしゅう)し、世(よ)は戦国(せんごく)となった頃(ころ)、

At the time that the Shogun in Kyoto and his lieutenant in Kamakura were losing power and the land was becoming war torn,
難(なん)を東海(とうかい)の浜(ほとり)に避(さけ)て、土地(とち)を開(ひら)き、基業(もとい)を興(おこ)し、子孫(しそん)十世(じっせ)に及(およ)ぶまで、房総(あわかずさ)の国主(こくしゅ)である、里見(さとみ)治部(じぶの)大夫(たいふ)義実(よしざね)朝臣(あそん)の、事蹟(じせき)をつらつら考(かんが)えるに、

pondering the traces of the Ason Yoshizane, head of the Satomi clan, who, avoiding the troubles on the eastern shore, opening the land(?), restoring his position, with descendants unto the 10th generation, lord of Awa-Kazusa,
清和(せいわ)の皇別(みすい)、源氏(げんじ)の嫡流(ちゃくりゅう)、鎮守府(ちんじゅふ)将軍(しょうぐん)八幡(はちまん)太郎(たろう)、義家(よしいえ)朝臣(あそん)、

was descended from the Seiwa emperor, through the senior branch of the Minamoto and the Ason Yoshiie, also known as the Shogun Hachimantarou,
十一(じゅういっ)世(せ)、里見(さとみ)治部(じぶの)少輔(しょうゆう)源(みなもとの)季基(すえもと)ぬしの嫡男(ちゃくなん)である。

and in the 11th generation, was the eldest son of Lord Suemoto of the Minamoto, head of the Satomi clan.

Corrections welcome.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby vkladchik » Sun 08.24.2008 10:49 pm

richvh wrote:the eastern shore, opening the land(?),


"Domesticating the land" -- in other words, making it suitable for human settlement. Cutting down trees, building houses, roads, wells, etc. In modern Japanese I think this would be 土地を開拓する.

京都(きょうと)の将軍(しょうぐん)、鎌倉(かまくら)の副将(ふくしょう)、武威(ぶい)衰(おとろ)えて偏執(へんしゅう)し、世(よ)は戦国(せんごく)となった頃(ころ)、

At the time that the Shogun in Kyoto and his lieutenant in Kamakura were losing power and the land was becoming war torn,


The 偏執 seems to have dropped out of your translation (unless it's expressed in the "were losing" part), but according to another reference (for old Japanese), 偏執 means something like "becoming polarized." 偏見に固執して他と折り合わないこと。
Last edited by vkladchik on Sun 08.24.2008 11:12 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby vkladchik » Sun 08.24.2008 10:59 pm

Yudan Taiteki wrote:I'm not entirely sure what you mean here; if you're wondering whether the に is a typo, it's not. If I am reading the text correctly, the に essentially means "and" (sort of like a -te form).

I thought it was an introduction, with the narrator saying it. Your interpretation makes sense, though, and "pondering" works as a translation of that.

The に itself isn't that mysterious, though. Significantly, it lives on in the expression 思うに (an almost 1-to-1 parallel with "methinks").
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby richvh » Mon 08.25.2008 10:13 am

Next sentence:
時(とき)に鎌倉(かまくら)の持氏(もちうぢ)卿(けう)、自立(じりう)の志(こゝろざし)頻(しきり)にして、執権(しつけん)憲実(のりさね)の諫(いさめ)を用(もち)ひず、忽地(たちまち)嫡庶(ちやくしよ)の義(ぎ)をわすれて、室町(むろまち)將軍(せうぐん)義教(よしのり)公(こう)と、確執(くわくしつ)に及(およ)びしかば、京軍(きやうぐん)猛(にはか)によせ來(きた)りて、憲実(のりさね)に力(ちから)を戮(あは)し、且(かつ)戦(たゝか)ひ且(かつ)進(すゝん)で、持氏(もちうぢ)父子(ふし)を、鎌倉(かまくら)なる、報國寺(ほうこくじ)に押篭(おしこめ)つゝ、詰腹(つめはら)を切(きら)せけり。


Somewhat modernized:
時(とき)に鎌倉(かまくら)の持氏(もちうじ)卿(きゅう)、自立(じりう)の志(こころざし)頻(しき)りにして、執権(しっけん)憲実(のりざね)の諫(いさ)めを用(もち)いず、たちまち嫡庶(ちゃくしょ)の義(ぎ)をわすれて、室町(むろまち)将軍(しょうぐん)義教(よしのり)公(こう)と、確執(かくしつ)に及(およ)んだので、京軍(きょうぐん)猛(にわか)によせ來(きた)って、憲実(のりざね)に力(ちから)を戮(あわ)し、かつ戦(たたか)いかつ進(すす)んで、持氏(もちうじ)父子(ふし)を、鎌倉(かまくら)である、報國寺(ほうこくじ)に押篭(おしこめ)つつ、詰腹(つめばら)を切(き)らせたのである。

Attempted translation:
At that time, Lord Mochiuji of Kamakura, who was of a remarkably independent will, not heeding the admonishments of the Shogun's deputy, Norizane, suddenly forgot to honor legitimacy, and because he had gone so far as to antagonize the Muromachi Shogun, Lord Yoshinori, the Imperial Army suddenly came, leant its might to Norizane, fighting and advancing, shut Mochiuji and his son up in Houkokuji in Kamakura, and forced them to commit seppuku.

Corrections welcome. (Where's Tony? I'd think that this would be right up his alley.)
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby vkladchik » Mon 08.25.2008 12:30 pm

たちまち嫡庶(ちゃくしょ)の義(ぎ)をわすれて、室町(むろまち)将軍(しょうぐん)義教(よしのり)公(こう)と、確執(かくしつ)に及(およ)んだので、

suddenly forgot to honor legitimacy, and because he had gone so far as to antagonize the Muromachi Shogun, Lord Yoshinori,

Looks good to me, except doesn't 嫡庶の儀をわすれて act as an adverbial phrase modifying 義教公と、確執に及んだ? I'm not quite sure what "honoring legitimacy" is, but it looks to me like he "began feuding with Yoshinori, ignoring the bonds of blood" (or whatever).
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby richvh » Mon 08.25.2008 2:13 pm

vkladchik wrote:
たちまち嫡庶(ちゃくしょ)の義(ぎ)をわすれて、室町(むろまち)将軍(しょうぐん)義教(よしのり)公(こう)と、確執(かくしつ)に及(およ)んだので、

suddenly forgot to honor legitimacy, and because he had gone so far as to antagonize the Muromachi Shogun, Lord Yoshinori,

Looks good to me, except doesn't 嫡庶の儀をわすれて act as an adverbial phrase modifying 義教公と、確執に及んだ?

Yeah, I guess that makes sense. So "Because he had suddenly forgotten to honor legitimacy, and gone so far as to antagonize..."
I'm not quite sure what "honoring legitimacy" is, but it looks to me like he "began feuding with Yoshinori, ignoring the bonds of blood" (or whatever).

I'm thinking legitimacy as in who is the legitimate ruler, not in terms of birth. Perhaps "honor the rule of law" might be better?

From Wikipedia, it seems that Uesugi Norizane was the second Kyoto-appointed lieutenant of the Uesugi clan that Mochiuji had quarreled with; the first had been Uesugi Zenchuu, who drove Mochiuji out of Kamakura, who returned with the support of the shogun (not because he had the shogun's favor, since the shogun's policies aligned more with Zenchuu than with Mochiuji, so much as that it was bad mojo for a subordinate to rebel against his superior), and then busied himself attacking various Zenchuu allies. After he drove Norizane out of Kamakura, the shogun had enough, and backed Norizane against Mochiuji.

Next sentence is short:
是(これ)はこれ、後花園(ごはなぞの)天皇(てんわう)の永亨(ゑいきやう)十一年(ねん)、二月十日のことになん。


Modernized:
これは、後花園(ごはなぞの)天皇(てんのう)の永亨(えいきょう)十一年(ねん)、二月十日のことであった。

Translation:
This was on the tenth day of the second month of the eleventh year of the Eikyou era of Emperor Gohanazono.

What's that になん at the end of the sentence? I assume it's some type of copula, but it doesn't match anything I see on Tony's bungo chart.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby Yudan Taiteki » Mon 08.25.2008 2:26 pm

に is the copula, なん is an emphatic, either なむ or なん depending on the period of Japanese.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby richvh » Mon 08.25.2008 3:37 pm

Next sentence:
かくて持氏(もちうぢ)の嫡男(ちやくなん)義成(よしなり)は、父(ちゝ)とゝもに自害(じがい)して、屍(かばね)を鎌倉(かまくら)に留(とゞ)むといへども、二男(じなん)春王(はるわう)、三男(さんなん)安王(やすわう)とまうせし公達(きんだち)は、辛(から)く敵軍(てきぐん)の囲(かこみ)を脱(のが)れて、下総(しもふさ)へ落(おち)給ふを、結城(ゆふきの)氏朝(うぢとも)迎(むかへ)とりて、主君(しゆくん)と仰(あほ)ぎ奉(たてまつ)り、京都(きやうと)の武命(ぶめい)に従(したが)はず、管領(くわんれい)〔清方(きよかた)持朝(もちとも)〕の大軍(たいぐん)をも屑(ものゝかす)とせず。


Modernized:
このように持氏(もちうじ)の嫡男(ちゃくなん)義成(よしなり)は、父(ちち)とともに自害(じがい)して、屍(かばね)を鎌倉(かまくら)に留(とど)めるというけど、二男(じなん)春王(はるおう)、三男(さんなん)安王(やすおう)ともうした公達(きんだち)は、辛(から)く敵軍(てきぐん)の囲(かこ)みを脱(のが)れて、下総(しもうさ)へ落(おち)給うを、結城(ゆうきの)氏朝(うじとも)迎(むか)えとって、主君(しゅくん)と仰(あお)ぎ奉(たてまつ)り、京都(きょうと)の武命(ぶめい)に従(したが)わず、管領(かんれい)〔清方(きよかた)持朝(もちとも)〕の大軍(たいぐん)をも屑(もののかす)とせず。


Translation: Thus Mojiuji's eldest son, Yoshinari, died along with his father, and their corpses remained in Kamakura, but his second son, Haruou, and third son, Yasuou, escaped the besieging enemy army, and fled to Shimousa, where Yuuki Ujimoto took them in, treated them as his rightful overlords, and ignoring the orders of Kyouto, did not abandon them to the great army of the Kanrei, Kiyokata Mochitomo.

Am I correct in equating まうせし with もうした? The online dictionaries say the classical form of 申す was まおす or まをす.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby vkladchik » Mon 08.25.2008 3:52 pm

Yudan Taiteki wrote:に is the copula, なん is an emphatic, either なむ or なん depending on the period of Japanese.

に is a copula? I can't find that in Shirane. Wouldn't it be more logical to assume になんありけり, with ありけり elided? It seems like elision is pretty common in this style.
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Re: 南総里見八犬伝(文語版)

Postby richvh » Mon 08.25.2008 4:01 pm

Tony's Bungo Chart says に is alternative form of the 連用形 of なり.
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