Conjunction

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= Conjunctions =
 
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A conjunction is a word that is used to combine two elements into a more complex phrase or sentence.
A conjunction is a word that is used to combine two elements into a more complex phrase or sentence.
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== And ==
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A conjunctive conjugation combines two similar elements into a more complex phrase.
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== Combining Nouns ==
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=== か ===
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This is essentially equivalent to the English ''or'' when it doesn't come at the end of a sentence.  Essentially, write the sentence out with the last noun only as you normally would.  Then, put the other choices in front of the last choice and place か after each of them?
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コヒー'''か'''お茶'''か'''水がほしいか。
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コヒー'''か''' おちゃ'''か''' みずが ほしいか。
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Would you like coffee, tea, or water?
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=== と ===
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This is similar to the English ''and'' when it follows a noun.  Sometimes, the other part of the combination is assumed, particularly if it is the speaker.  When you use と as a conjunction, it is assumed that you are listing out all of the elements of the combination.  If you are not listing out all of the elements, use や.
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友達の村上さん'''と'''一緒に東京へ行きます。
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ともだちの むらかみさん'''と''' いっしょに とうきょうに いきます。
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My friend, Mr. Murakami, and I are going to Tokyo together.
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本'''と'''紙'''と'''鉛筆を買いました。
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ほん'''と''' かみ'''と''' えんぴつを かいました。
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I bought a book, some paper, and a pencil.
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=== や ===
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This is also similar to the English ''and'', but implies that elements of the combination are missing.  Essentially, this is like listing out a group of items or people and tagging it with ''etc.'' or ''et al.''.  Sentences are formed much the same way as they would with と.
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カバンの中に本'''や'''紙'''や'''宿題があります。
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カバンの なかに ほん'''や''' かみ'''や''' しゅくだいが あります。
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私は字電車'''と'''ヘルメットを買った。
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There's a book, some paper, homework, and other stuff in my bag.
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わたしは じでんしゃ'''と''' へるめっとを かった。
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== Combining adjectives ==
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Adjectives are combined by using the "conjunctive" conjugation.  For ~い-type adjectives, replace the ~い ending with ~くて; for な-type adjectives, place a で after the adjective.
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I bought a bike '''and''' a helmet.
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'''くて'''静か'''で'''涼しい家をさがします。
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This groups "a bike" and "a helmet" to work as the direct object for "bought".
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ひろ'''くて''' しずか'''で''' すずしい いえを さがします。
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I'm looking for a spacious, quiet, cool house.
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Here is another example:
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== Combining verbs ==
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Verbs are also combined by using the "conjunctive" conjugation, which is typically referred to as the ~て conjugation.
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山田さん''''''田中さんはパーティーに行きました。
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食べ''''''飲ん'''で'''喜ん'''で'''ください。
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やまださん'''''' たなかさんは パーティーに いきました。
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たべ'''''' のん'''で''' よろこん'''で''' ください。
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Mr. Yamada '''and''' Mr. Tanaka went to the party.
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Eat, drink, and be merry.
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This groups "Mr. Yamada" and "Mr. Tanaka" to work as the subject for "went".
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== Combining phrases ==
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Phrases can also be combined. Most of the time, the individual phrases can form entire sentences, but the conjunction indicates the relationship between one sentence and another.
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So far, we've joined nouns together to make a compound subject or a compound object.
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=== Conjunctive form ===
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Though the example above used only verbs, the conjunctive can be used to combine predicate phrases that share a common subject.  Much like と, this implies that the list given includes all elements of the combination.
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今朝寝坊し'''て'''歯磨い'''て'''朝ごはんを食べ'''て'''仕事に行きました。
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Let's take this to the next step.
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けさ ねぼう し'''て''' は みがい'''て''' あさごはんを たべ'''て''' しごとに いきました。
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広'''くて'''静かな家に引越しするつもりです。
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This morning, I overslept, brushed my teeth, ate breakfast, and went to work.
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ひろ'''くて''' しずかな いえに ひっこし する つもり です。
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=== Enumerative form ===
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Sometimes referred to as the ~たり form, this is to the conjunctive form for verbs what や is to と for nouns.  It enumerates a list non-exhaustively, leaving the audience to fill in the rest of the list.
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I plan to move to a roomy''',''' quiet house.
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昨日彼女と一緒に映画見まし'''たり'''買い物し'''たり'''喫茶店で食べ'''たり'''しました。
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Here, the equation isn't as obvious.  In Japanese, you use the "conjunctive" conjugation of the adjective to combine it with another.  In English, you place a comma after each adjective except the one immediately preceding the modified noun.
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きのう かのじょと いっしょに えいが みまし'''たり''' かいもの し'''たり''' きっさてんで たべ'''たり''' しました。
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Yesterday, my girlfriend and I watched a movie, did some shopping, ate at a coffee shop, and so forth.
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Here's another use of the "conjunctive" conjugation, only this is the conjugation for a verb.
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=== か ===
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Not only used for nouns, か can be extended to combine phrases together to provide a list of choices.
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友達の村上さんはパーティーに'''行って'''酒を飲んだ。
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ピアノを引く''''''ビデオゲームをする'''か'''掃除すればいいか。
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ともだちの むらかみさんは パーティーに '''いって''' さけを のんだ。
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ピアノを ひく'''''' ビデオゲームを する'''か''' そうじ すれば いいか。
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My friend, Mr. Murakami, went to a party '''and''' drank ''sake''.
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Should I play the piano, play a video game, or do the cleaning?
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Here we have a compound predicate formed from "went to a party" and "drank ''sake''".  Japanese doesn't use a conjunction per se because we used the conjunctive form of the verb; English doesn't have a conjunctive form for its verbs, so we use the conjunction "and".
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=== が ===
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The particle が can be used to introduce a contrastive statement.
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== But ==
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パーティーに行きたかった'''が'''車は動けませんでした。
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In English, "but" is used as a contrastive conjunction.  Similar words include "however" and "although".  Japanese uses 「けれども」, 「けれど」, 「けど」, 「でも」 and simply 「が」.
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パーティーに いきたかった'''が''' くるまは うごけませんでした。
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私はパーティーに行きたかった''''''車は動けない。
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I wanted to go to the party, but I couldn't start the car (''lit.'' the car couldn't move).
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わたしは パーティイーに いきたかった'''''' くるまは うごけない。
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=== でも, けれど ===
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The conjunctions でも and けれど can also be used to introduce a contrastive statement (much like "but" in English).  けれど also appears as けれども (more polite) and けど (more informal).  Unlike , でも and けれど can sometimes be found at the beginning of a sentence.
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I wanted to go to the party, '''but''' my car wouldn't start (''lit.'' "the car couldn't move").
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去年東京に行った'''けれど'''日本語がよく学びませんでした。
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The English conjunctions "and" and "but" are called "postpositives" because they should never occur at the beginning of a sentence.  Similarly, you should not find 「けれでも」, 「けれど」, 「けど」, or 「が」 as conjunctions at the beginning of a sentence.
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きょねん とうきょうに いった '''けれど''' にほんごが よく まなびませんでした。
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For the most part, this covers the English conjunctions and some examples of how they relate to Japanese.  Another related topic would be [[relative clauses]], which are clauses that relate a piece of information about the topic they relate to (much as this clause relates to "relative clauses").
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I went to Tokyo last year, but I didn't learn much Japanese.

Revision as of 03:42, 7 June 2007

A conjunction is a word that is used to combine two elements into a more complex phrase or sentence.

A conjunctive conjugation combines two similar elements into a more complex phrase.

Contents

Combining Nouns

This is essentially equivalent to the English or when it doesn't come at the end of a sentence. Essentially, write the sentence out with the last noun only as you normally would. Then, put the other choices in front of the last choice and place か after each of them?

コヒーお茶水がほしいか。

コヒー おちゃ みずが ほしいか。

Would you like coffee, tea, or water?

This is similar to the English and when it follows a noun. Sometimes, the other part of the combination is assumed, particularly if it is the speaker. When you use と as a conjunction, it is assumed that you are listing out all of the elements of the combination. If you are not listing out all of the elements, use や.

友達の村上さん一緒に東京へ行きます。

ともだちの むらかみさん いっしょに とうきょうに いきます。

My friend, Mr. Murakami, and I are going to Tokyo together.


鉛筆を買いました。

ほん かみ えんぴつを かいました。

I bought a book, some paper, and a pencil.

This is also similar to the English and, but implies that elements of the combination are missing. Essentially, this is like listing out a group of items or people and tagging it with etc. or et al.. Sentences are formed much the same way as they would with と.

カバンの中に本宿題があります。

カバンの なかに ほん かみ しゅくだいが あります。

There's a book, some paper, homework, and other stuff in my bag.

Combining adjectives

Adjectives are combined by using the "conjunctive" conjugation. For ~い-type adjectives, replace the ~い ending with ~くて; for な-type adjectives, place a で after the adjective.

くて静か涼しい家をさがします。

ひろくて しずか すずしい いえを さがします。

I'm looking for a spacious, quiet, cool house.

Combining verbs

Verbs are also combined by using the "conjunctive" conjugation, which is typically referred to as the ~て conjugation.

食べ飲ん喜んください。

たべ のん よろこん ください。

Eat, drink, and be merry.

Combining phrases

Phrases can also be combined. Most of the time, the individual phrases can form entire sentences, but the conjunction indicates the relationship between one sentence and another.

Conjunctive form

Though the example above used only verbs, the conjunctive can be used to combine predicate phrases that share a common subject. Much like と, this implies that the list given includes all elements of the combination.

今朝寝坊し歯磨い朝ごはんを食べ仕事に行きました。

けさ ねぼう し は みがい あさごはんを たべ しごとに いきました。

This morning, I overslept, brushed my teeth, ate breakfast, and went to work.

Enumerative form

Sometimes referred to as the ~たり form, this is to the conjunctive form for verbs what や is to と for nouns. It enumerates a list non-exhaustively, leaving the audience to fill in the rest of the list.

昨日彼女と一緒に映画見ましたり買い物したり喫茶店で食べたりしました。

きのう かのじょと いっしょに えいが みましたり かいもの したり きっさてんで たべたり しました。

Yesterday, my girlfriend and I watched a movie, did some shopping, ate at a coffee shop, and so forth.

Not only used for nouns, か can be extended to combine phrases together to provide a list of choices.

ピアノを引くビデオゲームをする掃除すればいいか。

ピアノを ひく ビデオゲームを する そうじ すれば いいか。

Should I play the piano, play a video game, or do the cleaning?

The particle が can be used to introduce a contrastive statement.

パーティーに行きたかった車は動けませんでした。

パーティーに いきたかった くるまは うごけませんでした。

I wanted to go to the party, but I couldn't start the car (lit. the car couldn't move).

でも, けれど

The conjunctions でも and けれど can also be used to introduce a contrastive statement (much like "but" in English). けれど also appears as けれども (more polite) and けど (more informal). Unlike が, でも and けれど can sometimes be found at the beginning of a sentence.

去年東京に行ったけれど日本語がよく学びませんでした。

きょねん とうきょうに いった けれど にほんごが よく まなびませんでした。

I went to Tokyo last year, but I didn't learn much Japanese.

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