Conjunction

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This is essentially equivalent to the English ''or'' when it doesn't come at the end of a sentence.  Essentially, write the sentence out with the last noun only as you normally would.  Then, put the other choices in front of the last choice and place か after each of them.
This is essentially equivalent to the English ''or'' when it doesn't come at the end of a sentence.  Essentially, write the sentence out with the last noun only as you normally would.  Then, put the other choices in front of the last choice and place か after each of them.
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コヒー'''か'''お茶'''か'''水がほしいか。
+
コーヒー'''か'''お茶'''か'''水がほしいですか。
-
コヒー'''か''' おちゃ'''か''' みずが ほしいか。
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コーヒー'''か''' おちゃ'''か''' みずが ほしい ですか。
Would you like coffee, tea, or water?
Would you like coffee, tea, or water?
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Though the example above used only verbs, the conjunctive can be used to combine predicate phrases that share a common subject.  Much like と, this implies that the list given includes all elements of the combination.
Though the example above used only verbs, the conjunctive can be used to combine predicate phrases that share a common subject.  Much like と, this implies that the list given includes all elements of the combination.
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今朝寝坊し'''て'''歯磨い'''て'''朝ごはんを食べ'''て'''仕事に行きました。
+
今朝寝坊し'''て'''歯を磨い'''て'''朝ごはんを食べ'''て'''仕事に行きました。
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けさ ねぼう し'''て''' は みがい'''て''' あさごはんを たべ'''て''' しごとに いきました。
+
けさ ねぼう し'''て''' はを みがい'''て''' あさごはんを たべ'''て''' しごとに いきました。
This morning, I overslept, brushed my teeth, ate breakfast, and went to work.
This morning, I overslept, brushed my teeth, ate breakfast, and went to work.
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Sometimes referred to as the ~たり form, this is to the conjunctive form for verbs what や is to と for nouns.  It enumerates a list non-exhaustively, letting the audience fill in the rest of the list.
Sometimes referred to as the ~たり form, this is to the conjunctive form for verbs what や is to と for nouns.  It enumerates a list non-exhaustively, letting the audience fill in the rest of the list.
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昨日彼女と一緒に映画見まし'''たり'''買い物し'''たり'''喫茶店で食べ'''たり'''しました。
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昨日彼女と一緒に映画を見'''たり'''買い物し'''たり'''喫茶店で食べ'''たり'''しました。
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きのう かのじょと いっしょに えいが みまし'''たり''' かいもの し'''たり''' きっさてんで たべ'''たり''' しました。
+
きのう かのじょと いっしょに えいがを み'''たり''' かいもの し'''たり''' きっさてんで たべ'''たり''' しました。
Yesterday, my girlfriend and I watched a movie, did some shopping, ate at a coffee shop, and so forth.
Yesterday, my girlfriend and I watched a movie, did some shopping, ate at a coffee shop, and so forth.
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Not only used for nouns, か can be extended to combine phrases together to provide a list of choices.
Not only used for nouns, か can be extended to combine phrases together to provide a list of choices.
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ピアノを引く'''か'''ビデオゲームをする'''か'''掃除すればいいか。
+
ピアノを引く'''か'''ビデオゲームをする'''か'''掃除すればいいですか。
-
ピアノを ひく'''か''' ビデオゲームを する'''か''' そうじ すれば いいか。
+
ピアノを ひく'''か''' ビデオゲームを する'''か''' そうじ すれば いい ですか。
Should I play the piano, play a video game, or do the cleaning?
Should I play the piano, play a video game, or do the cleaning?
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The particle が can be used to introduce a contrastive statement.
The particle が can be used to introduce a contrastive statement.
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パーティーに行きたかった'''が'''車は動けませんでした。
+
パーティーに行きたかったのです'''が'''車を出せませんでした。
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パーティーに いきたかった'''が''' くるまは うごけませんでした。
+
パーティーに いきたかったのです'''が''' くるまをだせませんでした。
I wanted to go to the party, but I couldn't start the car (''lit.'' the car couldn't move).
I wanted to go to the party, but I couldn't start the car (''lit.'' the car couldn't move).
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=== でも, けれど ===
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=== けれど ===
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The conjunctions でも and けれど can also be used to introduce a contrastive statement (much like "but" in English).  けれど also appears as けれども (more polite) and けど (more informal).  Unlike が, でも and けれど can sometimes be found at the beginning of a sentence.
+
The conjunction けれど can also be used to introduce a contrastive statement (much like "but" in English).  けれど also appears as けれども (more polite) and けど (more informal).  Unlike が, けれど can sometimes be found at the beginning of a sentence.  でも is not used as a conjunction to form a single sentence out of two contrasting sentences; it is only found at the beginning of a sentence when it serves to introduce a contrast.
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去年東京に行った'''けれど'''日本語がよく学びませんでした。
+
去年東京に行った'''けれど'''日本語をあんまり学びませんでした。
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きょねん とうきょうに いった '''けれど''' にほんごが よく まなびませんでした。
+
きょねん とうきょうに いった '''けれど''' にほんごを あんまり まなびませんでした。
I went to Tokyo last year, but I didn't learn much Japanese.
I went to Tokyo last year, but I didn't learn much Japanese.
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 +
=== から ===
 +
The conjunction から trails an explanatory statement, usually introducing a statement of something affected by the previous statement.  It can usually be translated as "because".  It will sometimes appear as だから at the beginning of a sentence if the explanation was given in a prior statement, especially if a different speaker presented the explanation.
 +
 +
今日は休みだ'''から'''寝坊しました。
 +
 +
きょうは やすみだ'''から''' ねぼう しました。
 +
 +
I have today off, so I slept in.  (''or'' Because I have the day off, I slept in.)
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 +
[[Category:Grammar]]

Current revision as of 12:25, 9 June 2007

A conjunction is a word that is used to combine two elements into a more complex phrase or sentence.

A conjunctive conjugation combines two similar elements into a more complex phrase.

Contents

Combining Nouns

This is essentially equivalent to the English or when it doesn't come at the end of a sentence. Essentially, write the sentence out with the last noun only as you normally would. Then, put the other choices in front of the last choice and place か after each of them.

コーヒーお茶水がほしいですか。

コーヒー おちゃ みずが ほしい ですか。

Would you like coffee, tea, or water?

This is similar to the English and when it follows a noun. Sometimes, the other part of the combination is assumed, particularly if it is the speaker. When you use と as a conjunction, it is assumed that you are listing out all of the elements of the combination. If you are not listing out all of the elements, use や.

友達の村上さん一緒に東京へ行きます。

ともだちの むらかみさん いっしょに とうきょうに いきます。

My friend, Mr. Murakami, and I are going to Tokyo together.


鉛筆を買いました。

ほん かみ えんぴつを かいました。

I bought a book, some paper, and a pencil.

This is also similar to the English and, but implies that elements of the combination are missing. Essentially, this is like listing out a group of items or people and tagging it with etc. or et al.. Sentences are formed much the same way as they would with と.

カバンの中に本宿題があります。

カバンの なかに ほん かみ しゅくだいが あります。

There's a book, some paper, homework, and other stuff in my bag.

Combining adjectives

Adjectives are combined by using the "conjunctive" conjugation. For ~い-type adjectives, replace the ~い ending with ~くて; for な-type adjectives, place a で after the adjective.

くて静か涼しい家をさがします。

ひろくて しずか すずしい いえを さがします。

I'm looking for a spacious, quiet, cool house.

Combining verbs

Verbs are also combined by using the "conjunctive" conjugation, which is typically referred to as the ~て conjugation.

食べ飲ん喜んください。

たべ のん よろこん ください。

Eat, drink, and be merry.

Combining phrases

Phrases can also be combined. Most of the time, the individual phrases can form entire sentences, but the conjunction indicates the relationship between one sentence and another.

Conjunctive form

Though the example above used only verbs, the conjunctive can be used to combine predicate phrases that share a common subject. Much like と, this implies that the list given includes all elements of the combination.

今朝寝坊し歯を磨い朝ごはんを食べ仕事に行きました。

けさ ねぼう し はを みがい あさごはんを たべ しごとに いきました。

This morning, I overslept, brushed my teeth, ate breakfast, and went to work.

Enumerative form

Sometimes referred to as the ~たり form, this is to the conjunctive form for verbs what や is to と for nouns. It enumerates a list non-exhaustively, letting the audience fill in the rest of the list.

昨日彼女と一緒に映画を見たり買い物したり喫茶店で食べたりしました。

きのう かのじょと いっしょに えいがを みたり かいもの したり きっさてんで たべたり しました。

Yesterday, my girlfriend and I watched a movie, did some shopping, ate at a coffee shop, and so forth.

Not only used for nouns, か can be extended to combine phrases together to provide a list of choices.

ピアノを引くビデオゲームをする掃除すればいいですか。

ピアノを ひく ビデオゲームを する そうじ すれば いい ですか。

Should I play the piano, play a video game, or do the cleaning?

The particle が can be used to introduce a contrastive statement.

パーティーに行きたかったのです車を出せませんでした。

パーティーに いきたかったのです くるまをだせませんでした。

I wanted to go to the party, but I couldn't start the car (lit. the car couldn't move).

けれど

The conjunction けれど can also be used to introduce a contrastive statement (much like "but" in English). けれど also appears as けれども (more polite) and けど (more informal). Unlike が, けれど can sometimes be found at the beginning of a sentence. でも is not used as a conjunction to form a single sentence out of two contrasting sentences; it is only found at the beginning of a sentence when it serves to introduce a contrast.

去年東京に行ったけれど日本語をあんまり学びませんでした。

きょねん とうきょうに いった けれど にほんごを あんまり まなびませんでした。

I went to Tokyo last year, but I didn't learn much Japanese.

から

The conjunction から trails an explanatory statement, usually introducing a statement of something affected by the previous statement. It can usually be translated as "because". It will sometimes appear as だから at the beginning of a sentence if the explanation was given in a prior statement, especially if a different speaker presented the explanation.

今日は休みだから寝坊しました。

きょうは やすみだから ねぼう しました。

I have today off, so I slept in. (or Because I have the day off, I slept in.)

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