Grammar page 2

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Have you learned the [[Kana|kana]] yet?  It's not good to have to rely on [[Romaji|romaji]] all the time.  See [http://www.thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=2 Learn Hiragana] and [http://www.thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=171 Katakana lesson 1].
Have you learned the [[Kana|kana]] yet?  It's not good to have to rely on [[Romaji|romaji]] all the time.  See [http://www.thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=2 Learn Hiragana] and [http://www.thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=171 Katakana lesson 1].
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== Practice Text 2 ==
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'''This text uses concepts explained up to this point'''
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 +
Paul is still at the airport and has been sitting and waiting for some time when a man comes up to him.
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 +
*女性:すみませんが、ブレイさんですか。
 +
*ポール:はい、ポール・ブレイです。田中さんですか。
 +
*田中:はい、田中です。日本へようこそ。
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*ポール:どうしておくれましたか。何かありましたか。
 +
*田中:ごめんね、事故で道がじゅうたいでした。
 +
 +
----
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'''Vocabulary'''<br>
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はい (int) yes<br>
 +
日本 【にほん(P); にっぽん】 (n) Japan; (P)<br>
 +
(N.B. にほん is the normal way to say Japan but にっぽん is still often used in some circumstances). <br>
 +
ようこそ (int) welcome!; nice to see you!; (P)<br>
 +
遅れる(P) 【おくれる】 (v1,vi) to be late; to be delayed; to fall behind schedule; to be overdue; (P)<br>
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ごめん (int,n) (uk) your pardon; declining (something); dismissal (P)<br>
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事故 【じこ】 (n) accident; incident; trouble (P)<br>
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道 【みち】 (n) road; street; way; (P)<br>
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じゅうたい (n,vs) congestion (e.g., traffic); delay; stagnation; (P)
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 +
----
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'''transliteration'''
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*[じょせい]josei:[すみませんが]sumimasenga, [ブレイさん]bureisan [ですか]desuka.
 +
*[ポール]po-ru:[はい]hai, [ポール・ブレイ]po-ru burei [です]desu. [たなか]tanakasan [です]desu [か]ka.
 +
*[たなか]tanaka:[はい]hai [たなか]tanaka [です]desu. [にほん]nihon [へ]e [ようこす]youkoso.
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*[ポール]po-ru : [どうして]doushite [おくれました]okuremashita [か]ka. [なにか]nanika [ありましたか]arimashitaka.
 +
*[たなか]tanaka : [ごめん]gomen [ね]ne, [じこ]jiko [で]de [みち]michi [が]ga [じゅうたい]juutai [でした]deshita.
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----
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'''translation'''
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*Woman : Excuse me, are you Mr Blay?
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*Paul:Yes. I'm Paul Blay. Are you Mrs Tanaka?
 +
*Tanaka:Yes, I'm Mrs Tanaka. Welcome to Japan.
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*Paul : Why were you late?  Did something happen?
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*Tanaka : Sorry, the road was jammed by an accident.
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 +
== Pronouns ==
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Pronouns are not used nearly as much in Japanese as they are in English.  Often the pronoun is used once and then after (until the topic shifts to someone else) the pronoun is dropped.  Still they are very important!
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 +
Learn 私(わたし(watashi)) and 貴方(あなた(anata)) well たち(tachi) and ら(ra) are endings that indicate plurality!  Easy! :) 
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 +
* Read more about [[Plurals]]
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 +
{|border=1
 +
|-
 +
|I - わたし watashi
 +
|WE - わたしたち watashi tachi
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|-   
 +
|YOU - あなた anata
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|
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YOU - あなたたち anata tachi
 +
|-
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|HE -  かれ kare
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|THEY - かれら kare ra
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|-
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|SHE - かのじょ kanojo
 +
|-
 +
|IT - IT isn't used but in IT's place sore (that) is often used -- Don't worry!
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|}
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Another meaning of 彼/かれ(kare))(he) is actually "boyfriend" and 彼女/かのじょ(kanojo) is "girlfriend"!<br>
 +
When the meaning is obvious, the pronoun is usually dropped.  In context both of the following are clear in meaning:<br>
 +
わたしはアメリカからきました。watashi wa amerika kara kimashita. I came from America.<br>
 +
アメリカからきました。amerika kara kimashita. (I) came from America. 
 +
 +
See more about this on the [[Pronouns]] page.
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== Possessive "'s" の ==
 +
 +
This is another nice part about Japanese.  To show relationship or possession between 2 things just put a の no between them.  The trick is knowing which goes to the left of the no and which goes to the right...
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Think of it as:  の => 's
 +
 +
わたしのねこ watashi no neko - My cat<br>
 +
日本の車 nihon no kuruma  - Japanese car [Japan's car]  <br>
 +
ねこのおもちゃ neko no omocha - Cat's toy <br>
 +
 +
Also think of:
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わたしの watashino as "my" and<br>
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あなたの anatano as "your"
== Particles intro ==
== Particles intro ==
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In Japanese, grammatical parts of the sentence are shown very clearly by "particles." These particles are placed after the word (or phrase) they modify.  The best way to learn to use them is to memorize useful examples and say them!
In Japanese, grammatical parts of the sentence are shown very clearly by "particles." These particles are placed after the word (or phrase) they modify.  The best way to learn to use them is to memorize useful examples and say them!
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See also [[Particles]] page.
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See also [[Particles]] page.<br>
 +
In colloquial use, some particles are often omitted. Dropping a particle is called [[無助詞]].
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=== wa - overall topic particle ===
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===は(wa) - overall topic particle ===
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は ''wa'' - overall topic particle - shows the main topic of the conversation [NOTE: it is a hiragana ha but pronounced as "wa"]
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は ''wa'' - overall topic particle - shows the main topic of the conversation (NOTE: it is a hiragana ha but pronounced as "wa" (See [[Wa vs Ha]])
あなたはやさしいです。
あなたはやさしいです。
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[Makes "you" the main topic]
[Makes "you" the main topic]
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=== ga - the subject particle ===
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=== が(ga) - the subject particle ===
が ''ga'' - the subject particle - sometimes the difference between wa and ga is hard to tell.  Sometimes they can be used interchangeably with only a slight change in meaning.  More on wa vs ga in the next section.
が ''ga'' - the subject particle - sometimes the difference between wa and ga is hard to tell.  Sometimes they can be used interchangeably with only a slight change in meaning.  More on wa vs ga in the next section.
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===Comparing は and が===
===Comparing は and が===
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See also [[が vs は]]
The topic particle は can easily be confused with the subject particle が.  That is because は '''overrides''' が, in other words in a sentence something can very easily be '''both the topic and the subject''' of that sentence.  In such cases the が 'disappears' and it looks like the は is acting as a subject marker.
The topic particle は can easily be confused with the subject particle が.  That is because は '''overrides''' が, in other words in a sentence something can very easily be '''both the topic and the subject''' of that sentence.  In such cases the が 'disappears' and it looks like the は is acting as a subject marker.
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if both are in a sentence, the wa is first.
if both are in a sentence, the wa is first.
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=== o - The Direct Object particle ===
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=== を(o) - The Direct Object particle ===
を o - The Direct Object particle  
を o - The Direct Object particle  
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[NOTE: it makes "book" the object.  If we were to say "I" it would be watashi wa at the beginning.]
[NOTE: it makes "book" the object.  If we were to say "I" it would be watashi wa at the beginning.]
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=== ni - usually shows movement (to) ===
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=== に(ni) - usually shows movement (to) ===
に ni - usually shows movement (to)
に ni - usually shows movement (to)
日本にいきましょう!<br>
日本にいきましょう!<br>
 +
にほんにいきましょう!<br>
nihon ni ikimashou!<br>
nihon ni ikimashou!<br>
Let's go to Japan!<br>
Let's go to Japan!<br>
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Let's go at 6.
Let's go at 6.
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=== de -  Shows location (at, in) ===
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=== で(de) -  Shows location (at, in) ===
で de -  Shows location (at, in)
で de -  Shows location (at, in)
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[Notice there is no movement]
[Notice there is no movement]
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=== mo  Also ===
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=== も(mo) Also ===
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も mo means "also" or "too" and like other particles, it is placed after the word it modifies. Let's see some examples:
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(mo) means "also" or "too" and like other particles, it is placed after the word it modifies. Let's see some examples:
PERSON A:<br>
PERSON A:<br>
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NOTE: 私も watashi mo by itself means "Me too."
NOTE: 私も watashi mo by itself means "Me too."
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=== to  And ===
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と to - connecting nouns<br>
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わたしは日本語と英語とフランス語が話せます。<br>
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watashi wa nihongo to eigo to furansugo ga hanasemasu.<br>
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I can speak Japanese and English and French.<br>
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 +
More detail can be seen on と in [[Expressing and/or in Japanese#と]] and と can be used in more ways, detailed in [[Particles#と to]]
'''STOP and [[Quiz 2|test yourself]].'''
'''STOP and [[Quiz 2|test yourself]].'''
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There are 2 types of adjectives:
There are 2 types of adjectives:
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-i adjectives - adjectives that end in 'i', if you like their 'dictionary form' ends in 'i'.
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-i adjectives - adjectives that end in 'i', if you like their 'dictionary form' ends in 'i'.<br>
-na adjectives - adjectives that add -na when placed before nouns
-na adjectives - adjectives that add -na when placed before nouns
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The basic definition of adjectives is that they go before a noun to modify or further define it.  For example in English "Car." -> "Red car."  Japanese does just the same "車 kuruma" -> "赤い車 akai kuruma".
The basic definition of adjectives is that they go before a noun to modify or further define it.  For example in English "Car." -> "Red car."  Japanese does just the same "車 kuruma" -> "赤い車 akai kuruma".
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More on what can be done with adjectives in Japanese [[Grammar page 3|later]].
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* i-adjectives that are also na-adjectives
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== and と、そして ==
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Some adjectives have both i-adjective and na-adjective forms.  大きい ''ookii'' vs 大きな ''ookina'' 小さい ''chiisai'' vs 小さな ''chiisana''.  For more insight on those see [[Ookii vs ookina]].
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There are several ways to say "and" (connecting things).  Let's look at 2 of them
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* Irregular adjectives
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と to - connecting nouns<br>
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良い is an irregular adjective. It can be read both as よい ''yoi'' and as いい ''ii''.  However the いい version only exists in the dictionary form.  When inflected the first part is always read as よ ''yo''.  In other words 良かった is always よかった ''yokatta'' and should never be いかった ''ikatta''.
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わたしは日本語と英語とフランス語が話せます。<br>
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-
watashi wa nihongo to eigo to furansugo ga hanasemasu.<br>
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-
I can speak Japanese and English and French.<br>
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そして soshite - connecting phrases<br>
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See more on [[Yokatta|よかった]].
-
わたしは日本語がはなせます。そして、ドイツ語が読めます。<br>
+
-
watashi wa nihongo ga hanasemasu. soshite, doitsugo ga yomemasu.<br>
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-
I can speak Japanese and I can read German.
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-
== But でも ==
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===Negative i-adjectives===
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But, a small word, but... There are other "buts" but demo is the most common. Learn this first and you can pick the others up later.
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We say `not red` to show an absence of that color in English. In Japanese as with the verbs, the adjective`s ending is modified with a negative ending. You will notice a great similarity with the verbal endings.
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でも demo - but
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With `i` adjectives the `i` changes to a `ku` before adding the `nai`.
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日本語が好きでも、フランス語はきらいです。<br>
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At the end of sentences;<br>
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nihongo ga suki demo,  furansugo wa kirai desu.<br>
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そのりんごは赤くないです。sono ringo wa akakunai desu. That apple isn`t red.
-
I like Japanese, but I hate French.
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== But けれども ==
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And in the middle of sentences;<br>
 +
赤くないリンゴもあります。akakunai ringo mo arimasu. There are also apples that aren't red.
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From most formal to least formal けれども ''keredomo'' けれど ''keredo'' and けど ''kedo''.
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===Negative na-adjectives===
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* although, though
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`na` adjectives, when at the end of sentences, behave exactly like nouns.
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けれども can be used as a [[conjunction]] to join two sentences.  It goes after the verb or copula (です / だ) of the first sentence.
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First the positive sentence with です ''desu''.
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コンピューターは好きだけど、高いです。<br>
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くるまです。kuruma desu. (That is) a car.
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konpyu-ta- wa suki dakedo, takai desu.<br>
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-
I like computers but they are expensive.
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== Fillers ええと ==
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Then the negative sentence with a noun (exactly as seen earlier in '''conjugating Desu''' in Lesson 1).
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In English, we have our "um." in Japanese, they have their "eeto." This is the sound you make when you can't think of what to say, but want to say something!
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くるまではありません。kuruma de wa arimasen. That is not a car.
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何の動物が好きですか?
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Now the same with a na-adjective.
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nan no doubutsu ga suki desu ka?
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-
What animal do you like?
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ええと・・・、ねこがすきです。
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かのじょは元気です。kanojo wa genki desu. She is well.
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eeto..., neko ga suki desu.
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-
Um..., I like cats.
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==Very とても==
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And negative
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とても ''totemo'', often written as とっても ''tottemo''.
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かのじょは元気ではありません。 kanojo wa genki dewa arimasen.
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Sometimes mom's cooking isn't just oishii (delicious) it is VERY OISHII!
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Other versions of ではありません can be used instead (e.g. plain form - ではない ''dewanai'', casual じゃない ''janai'' etc.)
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Add とても totemo before adjectives to say "very"
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私は、きれいじゃない。watashi wa kirei ja nai. I am not pretty.
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とてもおいしいです。<br>
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To learn more about adjectives click [http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=8 here].
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totemo oishii desu.<br>
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-
It's very delicious!
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とても大きな木です。<br>
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'''STOP and [[Quiz 5|test yourself]].'''
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totemo ookina ki desu.<br>
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-
It is a very big tree.
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OTHER VERY WORDS 
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More on what can be done with adjectives in Japanese [[Grammar page 3|later]].
-
 
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非常に hijou ni
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超 chou (kind of slang - chou means "super-")
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==I think と思います==
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-
 
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This goes at the end to show that you believe what you say, but are not 100% sure. It is also used to show one's opinion.  If there is a desu change it to da which is the more casual form and add to omoimasu
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-
 
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1. The speaker is not totally sure of the accuracy of his info...
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-
 
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熊のプーさんはくまだと思います。<br>
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-
kuma no pu-san wa kuma da to omoimasu.<br>
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Winnie the Pooh is a bear, I think...
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-
 
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Next is an example of showing one's opinion.  It is true for the speaker, but may not be so for the listener.
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なっとうはおいしいと思います。<br>
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-
nattou wa oishii to omoimasu.<br>
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-
I think Natto is delicious
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-
 
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Basically you can say any sentence and if you want to soften it or show you are not sure, or show your opinion add to omoimasu
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-
 
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==To want ~がほしい==
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-
 
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Saying "I want (something)" is pretty easy.  Just say the thing you want and add ga hoshii to it.
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-
 
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飲み物がほしいです。 <br>
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-
nomimono ga hoshii desu. <br>
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-
(I) want a drink.
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-
 
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NOTE: The desu is not used in plain or informal Japanese.
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-
 
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Next, let's ask a question.  Can you figure out how to do it?  That's right add a ka
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-
 
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ケーキがほしいですか。 <br>
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-
ke-ki ga hoshii desu ka.<br>
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-
Do you want cake?<br>
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-
 
+
-
ほしい ''hoshii'' is an adjective so can be conjugated just like other i-adjectives.
+
-
 
+
-
ケーキが欲しかったです。<br>
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-
ke-ki ga hoshikatta desu.<br>
+
-
I wanted cake.
+
-
 
+
-
==Want to do~ ~たい==
+
-
 
+
-
First get the ~ます masu form of the verb you want to do.  Then drop the ~ます masu and add ~たい tai.
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-
 
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-
たべます tabemasu (to eat)  たべ tabe  たべたい tabetai (want to eat)<br>
+
-
のみます nomimasu (to drink)  のみ nomi  のみたい nomitai (want to drink)<br>
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-
します shimasu (to do)  し shi  したい shitai (want to do)
+
-
 
+
-
Of course if you want to say "do you want to..." Just add ka
+
-
 
+
-
ケーキをたべたいですか。<br>
+
-
ke-ki o tabetai desu ka.<br>
+
-
Do you want to eat cake?<br>
+
-
 
+
-
~たい ''tai'' is an adjective and can be conjugated like normal i-adjectives.
+
-
 
+
-
死にたかったです。<br>
+
-
shinitakatta desu.<br>
+
-
I wanted to die.
+
-
 
+
-
==There is / There are==
+
-
 
+
-
For inanimate objects (objects, plants...), end the sentence with ~が あります  ga arimasu
+
-
 
+
-
木です。
+
-
ki desu.
+
-
It's a tree.  [lit. tree is.] 
+
-
 
+
-
木があります。
+
-
ki ga arimasu.
+
-
There is a tree(s). 
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-
 
+
-
For living things (people and animals) use ~が います ga imasu.
+
-
 
+
-
ねこがいます。
+
-
neko ga imasu.
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-
There is a cat(s). 
+
-
 
+
-
To show the negative just add -sen to the end
+
-
 
+
-
あります arimasu  ありません arimasen
+
-
Another more casual form of arimasu that you don't have to learn now is...
+
-
ある aru  ない nai
+
-
 
+
-
います imasu  いません imasen
+
-
Another more casual form of imasu that you don't have to learn now is...
+
-
いる iru  いない inai
+
-
 
+
-
Maybe you know these useful phrases:
+
-
 
+
-
お願いがあります。 onegai ga arimasu. I have a favor to ask.
+
-
問題ない。 mondai nai. No problem!  [this is the casual form of arimasen]
+
-
 
+
-
==To like... がすき==
+
-
 
+
-
It is easy to like something and to say it!  Just add ga suki after the object that you like:
+
-
 
+
-
ねこがすきです。<br>
+
-
neko ga suki desu.<br>
+
-
I like cats.<br>
+
-
[note: Nouns don't change in number (no s) so it could mean "a cat".  Also note the desu is often dropped in speech - "neko ga suki." is fine!]
+
-
 
+
-
 
+
-
 
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-
==Why なぜ、どうして==
+
-
 
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-
2 ways to say "why" are:
+
-
 
+
-
# なぜ naze - why
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-
# どうして doushite - why
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-
 
+
-
They are basically interchangeable and start at the beginning of the sentence and are followed by the question
+
-
 
+
-
なぜ(どうして)私のケーキをたべましたか?<br>
+
-
naze (doushite) watashi no ke-ki o tabemashita ka?<br>
+
-
Why did you eat my cake?<br>
+
-
[There isn't a "you" but obviously you wouldn't be asking yourself this question.]
+
-
'''STOP and [[Quiz 4|test yourself]].'''
+
[[Category:Grammar]]
'''Continue to [[Grammar page 3|lesson 3]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 1|lesson 1]]'''
'''Continue to [[Grammar page 3|lesson 3]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 1|lesson 1]]'''

Current revision as of 08:08, 9 July 2008

The second page of the grammar lessons.

Have you learned the kana yet? It's not good to have to rely on romaji all the time. See Learn Hiragana and Katakana lesson 1.

Contents

Practice Text 2

This text uses concepts explained up to this point

Paul is still at the airport and has been sitting and waiting for some time when a man comes up to him.

  • 女性:すみませんが、ブレイさんですか。
  • ポール:はい、ポール・ブレイです。田中さんですか。
  • 田中:はい、田中です。日本へようこそ。
  • ポール:どうしておくれましたか。何かありましたか。
  • 田中:ごめんね、事故で道がじゅうたいでした。

Vocabulary
はい (int) yes
日本 【にほん(P); にっぽん】 (n) Japan; (P)
(N.B. にほん is the normal way to say Japan but にっぽん is still often used in some circumstances).
ようこそ (int) welcome!; nice to see you!; (P)
遅れる(P) 【おくれる】 (v1,vi) to be late; to be delayed; to fall behind schedule; to be overdue; (P)
ごめん (int,n) (uk) your pardon; declining (something); dismissal (P)
事故 【じこ】 (n) accident; incident; trouble (P)
道 【みち】 (n) road; street; way; (P)
じゅうたい (n,vs) congestion (e.g., traffic); delay; stagnation; (P)


transliteration

  • [じょせい]josei:[すみませんが]sumimasenga, [ブレイさん]bureisan [ですか]desuka.
  • [ポール]po-ru:[はい]hai, [ポール・ブレイ]po-ru burei [です]desu. [たなか]tanakasan [です]desu [か]ka.
  • [たなか]tanaka:[はい]hai [たなか]tanaka [です]desu. [にほん]nihon [へ]e [ようこす]youkoso.
  • [ポール]po-ru : [どうして]doushite [おくれました]okuremashita [か]ka. [なにか]nanika [ありましたか]arimashitaka.
  • [たなか]tanaka : [ごめん]gomen [ね]ne, [じこ]jiko [で]de [みち]michi [が]ga [じゅうたい]juutai [でした]deshita.

translation

  • Woman : Excuse me, are you Mr Blay?
  • Paul:Yes. I'm Paul Blay. Are you Mrs Tanaka?
  • Tanaka:Yes, I'm Mrs Tanaka. Welcome to Japan.
  • Paul : Why were you late? Did something happen?
  • Tanaka : Sorry, the road was jammed by an accident.

Pronouns

Pronouns are not used nearly as much in Japanese as they are in English. Often the pronoun is used once and then after (until the topic shifts to someone else) the pronoun is dropped. Still they are very important!

Learn 私(わたし(watashi)) and 貴方(あなた(anata)) well たち(tachi) and ら(ra) are endings that indicate plurality! Easy! :)

I - わたし watashi WE - わたしたち watashi tachi
YOU - あなた anata

YOU - あなたたち anata tachi

HE - かれ kare THEY - かれら kare ra
SHE - かのじょ kanojo
IT - IT isn't used but in IT's place sore (that) is often used -- Don't worry!

Another meaning of 彼/かれ(kare))(he) is actually "boyfriend" and 彼女/かのじょ(kanojo) is "girlfriend"!
When the meaning is obvious, the pronoun is usually dropped. In context both of the following are clear in meaning:
わたしはアメリカからきました。watashi wa amerika kara kimashita. I came from America.
アメリカからきました。amerika kara kimashita. (I) came from America.

See more about this on the Pronouns page.

Possessive "'s" の

This is another nice part about Japanese. To show relationship or possession between 2 things just put a の no between them. The trick is knowing which goes to the left of the no and which goes to the right...

Think of it as: の => 's

わたしのねこ watashi no neko - My cat
日本の車 nihon no kuruma - Japanese car [Japan's car]
ねこのおもちゃ neko no omocha - Cat's toy

Also think of: わたしの watashino as "my" and
あなたの anatano as "your"

Particles intro

In Japanese, grammatical parts of the sentence are shown very clearly by "particles." These particles are placed after the word (or phrase) they modify. The best way to learn to use them is to memorize useful examples and say them!

See also Particles page.
In colloquial use, some particles are often omitted. Dropping a particle is called 無助詞.

は(wa) - overall topic particle

wa - overall topic particle - shows the main topic of the conversation (NOTE: it is a hiragana ha but pronounced as "wa" (See Wa vs Ha)

あなたはやさしいです。 anata wa yasashii desu. You are nice. [Makes "you" the main topic]

が(ga) - the subject particle

ga - the subject particle - sometimes the difference between wa and ga is hard to tell. Sometimes they can be used interchangeably with only a slight change in meaning. More on wa vs ga in the next section.

ねこがへんです。 neko ga hen desu. The cat is strange. [Makes the "cat" the subject]

Comparing は and が

See also が vs は

The topic particle は can easily be confused with the subject particle が. That is because は overrides が, in other words in a sentence something can very easily be both the topic and the subject of that sentence. In such cases the が 'disappears' and it looks like the は is acting as a subject marker.

Take this simple sentence.

わたしはクレイです。
watashi wa kurei desu.
I am Clay.
["I" (that is the speaker, Clay) is the topic and now this is known, it won't be repeated unless the topic changes]

What is the subject of the sentence? That's right - "I" watashi is. But because "I" is also the topic only the topic marker は is used. Now we'll let Clay continue and say another sentence ...

ねこがすきです。
neko ga suki desu.
(I) like cats.
["cats" is the subject here. "I" is still the topic. He could have said "watashi wa neko ga suki desu." but that is unnecessary because he has already said "watashi wa" establishing the topic in the previous sentence.]

if both are in a sentence, the wa is first.

を(o) - The Direct Object particle

を o - The Direct Object particle

本をよみました。
hon o yomimashita.
(I) read a book.
[NOTE: it makes "book" the object. If we were to say "I" it would be watashi wa at the beginning.]

に(ni) - usually shows movement (to)

に ni - usually shows movement (to)

日本にいきましょう!
にほんにいきましょう!
nihon ni ikimashou!
Let's go to Japan!
[There is movement going to Japan]

or shows time (at)

6時にいきましょう!
roku ji ni ikimashou!
Let's go at 6.

で(de) - Shows location (at, in)

で de - Shows location (at, in)

日本で遊びましょう!
nihon de asobimashou!
Let's play (have fun) in Japan!
[Notice there is no movement]

も(mo) Also

も(mo) means "also" or "too" and like other particles, it is placed after the word it modifies. Let's see some examples:

PERSON A:
私はねこがすきです。
watashi wa neko ga suki desu.
I like cats.

PERSON B:
私はねこがすき、そしていぬもすきです。
watashi wa neko ga suki, soshite inu mo suki desu.
I like cats, and I also like dogs.

N.B. The mo after inu replaces ga. You can't say "ga mo"

PERSON C:
私もねこといぬがすきです。
watashi mo neko to inu ga suki desu.
I also like cats and dogs.

NOTE: 私も watashi mo by itself means "Me too."

to And

と to - connecting nouns

わたしは日本語と英語とフランス語が話せます。
watashi wa nihongo to eigo to furansugo ga hanasemasu.
I can speak Japanese and English and French.

More detail can be seen on と in Expressing and/or in Japanese#と and と can be used in more ways, detailed in Particles#と to

STOP and test yourself.

more on this

Adjectives (part 1)

There are 2 types of adjectives:

-i adjectives - adjectives that end in 'i', if you like their 'dictionary form' ends in 'i'.
-na adjectives - adjectives that add -na when placed before nouns

The -i adjectives change:

あつい atsui - (It's) hoti
あつくない atsukunai - not hot-i + kunai
あつかった atsukatta - was hot-i + katta
あつくなかった atsukunakatta - wasn't hot-i + kunakatta

The -na adjectives don't change! But when placed before nouns they add a -na

げんき genki (healthy, active, fine) げんきな子 genki na ko (healthy child)

The basic definition of adjectives is that they go before a noun to modify or further define it. For example in English "Car." -> "Red car." Japanese does just the same "車 kuruma" -> "赤い車 akai kuruma".

  • i-adjectives that are also na-adjectives

Some adjectives have both i-adjective and na-adjective forms. 大きい ookii vs 大きな ookina 小さい chiisai vs 小さな chiisana. For more insight on those see Ookii vs ookina.

  • Irregular adjectives

良い is an irregular adjective. It can be read both as よい yoi and as いい ii. However the いい version only exists in the dictionary form. When inflected the first part is always read as よ yo. In other words 良かった is always よかった yokatta and should never be いかった ikatta.

See more on よかった.

Negative i-adjectives

We say `not red` to show an absence of that color in English. In Japanese as with the verbs, the adjective`s ending is modified with a negative ending. You will notice a great similarity with the verbal endings.

With `i` adjectives the `i` changes to a `ku` before adding the `nai`.

At the end of sentences;
そのりんごは赤くないです。sono ringo wa akakunai desu. That apple isn`t red.

And in the middle of sentences;
赤くないリンゴもあります。akakunai ringo mo arimasu. There are also apples that aren't red.

Negative na-adjectives

`na` adjectives, when at the end of sentences, behave exactly like nouns.

First the positive sentence with です desu.

くるまです。kuruma desu. (That is) a car.

Then the negative sentence with a noun (exactly as seen earlier in conjugating Desu in Lesson 1).

くるまではありません。kuruma de wa arimasen. That is not a car.

Now the same with a na-adjective.

かのじょは元気です。kanojo wa genki desu. She is well.

And negative

かのじょは元気ではありません。 kanojo wa genki dewa arimasen.

Other versions of ではありません can be used instead (e.g. plain form - ではない dewanai, casual じゃない janai etc.)

私は、きれいじゃない。watashi wa kirei ja nai. I am not pretty.

To learn more about adjectives click here.

STOP and test yourself.

More on what can be done with adjectives in Japanese later.

Continue to lesson 3 Go back and review lesson 1

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