Grammar page 3

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== But でも ==
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But, a small word, but... There are other "buts" but demo is the most common. Learn this first and you can pick the others up later.
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でも demo - but
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日本語が好きでも、フランス語はきらいです。<br>
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nihongo ga suki demo,  furansugo wa kirai desu.<br>
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I like Japanese, but I hate French.
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== But けれども ==
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From most formal to least formal けれども ''keredomo'' けれど ''keredo'' and けど ''kedo''.
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* although, though
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けれども can be used as a [[conjunction]] to join two sentences.  It goes after the verb or [[Verbs#The copula です|copula]] (です / だ) of the first sentence.
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コンピューターは好きだけど、高いです。<br>
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konpyu-ta- wa suki dakedo, takai desu.<br>
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I like computers but they are expensive.
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== Fillers ええと ==
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In English, we have our "um." in Japanese, they have their "eeto." This is the sound you make when you can't think of what to say, but want to say something!
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何の動物が好きですか?
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nan no doubutsu ga suki desu ka?
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What animal do you like?
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ええと・・・、ねこがすきです。
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eeto..., neko ga suki desu.
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Um..., I like cats.
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==Very とても==
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とても ''totemo'', often written as とっても ''tottemo''.
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Sometimes mom's cooking isn't just oishii (delicious) it is VERY OISHII!
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Add とても totemo before adjectives to say "very"
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とてもおいしいです。<br>
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totemo oishii desu.<br>
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It's very delicious!
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とても大きな木です。<br>
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totemo ookina ki desu.<br>
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It is a very big tree.
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OTHER VERY WORDS 
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非常に hijou ni
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超 chou (kind of slang - chou means "super-")
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==I think と思います==
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This goes at the end to show that you believe what you say, but are not 100% sure. It is also used to show one's opinion.  If there is a desu change it to da which is the more casual form and add to omoimasu
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1. The speaker is not totally sure of the accuracy of his info...
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熊のプーさんはくまだと思います。<br>
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kuma no pu-san wa kuma da to omoimasu.<br>
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Winnie the Pooh is a bear, I think...
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Next is an example of showing one's opinion.  It is true for the speaker, but may not be so for the listener.
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なっとうはおいしいと思います。<br>
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nattou wa oishii to omoimasu.<br>
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I think Natto is delicious
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Basically you can say any sentence and if you want to soften it or show you are not sure, or show your opinion add to omoimasu
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==To want ~がほしい==
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Saying "I want (something)" is pretty easy.  Just say the thing you want and add ga hoshii to it.
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飲み物がほしいです。 <br>
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nomimono ga hoshii desu. <br>
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(I) want a drink.
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NOTE: The desu is not used in plain or informal Japanese.
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Next, let's ask a question.  Can you figure out how to do it?  That's right add a ka
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ケーキがほしいですか。 <br>
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ke-ki ga hoshii desu ka.<br>
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Do you want cake?<br>
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ほしい ''hoshii'' is an adjective so can be conjugated just like other i-adjectives.
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ケーキが欲しかったです。<br>
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ke-ki ga hoshikatta desu.<br>
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I wanted cake.
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As ほしい ''hoshii'' is an adjective it can be used before nouns like other adjectives.
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ほしい本があります。<br>
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hoshii hon ga arimasu.<br>
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There is a book I want.
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==Want to do~ ~たい==
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First get the ~ます masu form of the verb you want to do.  Then drop the ~ます masu and add ~たい tai.
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たべます tabemasu (to eat)  たべ tabe  たべたい tabetai (want to eat)<br>
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のみます nomimasu (to drink)  のみ nomi  のみたい nomitai (want to drink)<br>
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します shimasu (to do)  し shi  したい shitai (want to do)
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Of course if you want to say "do you want to..." Just add ka
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ケーキをたべたいですか。<br>
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ke-ki o tabetai desu ka.<br>
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Do you want to eat cake?<br>
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~たい ''tai'' is an adjective and can be conjugated like normal i-adjectives.
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死にたかったです。<br>
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shinitakatta desu.<br>
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I wanted to die.
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As ~たい ''tai'' is an adjective it can also be used before nouns like other adjectives.
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読みたい本があります。<br>
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yomitai hon ga arimasu.<br>
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There is a book I want to read.
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==There is / There are==
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For inanimate objects (objects, plants...), end the sentence with ~が あります  ga arimasu
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木です。
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ki desu.
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It's a tree.  [lit. tree is.] 
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木があります。
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ki ga arimasu.
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There is a tree(s). 
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For living things (people and animals) use ~が います ga imasu.
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ねこがいます。
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neko ga imasu.
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There is a cat(s). 
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To show the negative just add -sen to the end
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あります arimasu  ありません arimasen
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Another more casual form of arimasu that you don't have to learn now is...
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ある aru  ない nai
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います imasu  いません imasen
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Another more casual form of imasu that you don't have to learn now is...
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いる iru  いない inai
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Maybe you know these useful phrases:
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お願いがあります。 onegai ga arimasu. I have a favor to ask.
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問題ない。 mondai nai. No problem!  [this is the casual form of arimasen]
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==To like... がすき==
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It is easy to like something and to say it!  Just add ga suki after the object that you like:
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ねこがすきです。<br>
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neko ga suki desu.<br>
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I like cats.<br>
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[note: Nouns don't change in number (no s) so it could mean "a cat".  Also note the desu is often dropped in speech - "neko ga suki." is fine!]
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==Why なぜ、どうして==
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2 ways to say "why" are:
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# なぜ naze - why
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# どうして doushite - why
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They are basically interchangeable and start at the beginning of the sentence and are followed by the question
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なぜ(どうして)私のケーキをたべましたか?<br>
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naze (doushite) watashi no ke-ki o tabemashita ka?<br>
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Why did you eat my cake?<br>
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[There isn't a "you" but obviously you wouldn't be asking yourself this question.]
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You can skip ahead to [[Grammar page 4#.E3.81.AA.E3.81.9C.E3.81.AA.E3.82.89|lesson 4]] to read about the related なぜなら.
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'''STOP and [[Quiz 4|test yourself]].'''
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[[Category:Grammar]]
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 3|lesson 3]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 1|lesson 1]]'''

Revision as of 07:33, 21 August 2006

Contents

But でも

But, a small word, but... There are other "buts" but demo is the most common. Learn this first and you can pick the others up later.

でも demo - but

日本語が好きでも、フランス語はきらいです。
nihongo ga suki demo, furansugo wa kirai desu.
I like Japanese, but I hate French.

But けれども

From most formal to least formal けれども keredomo けれど keredo and けど kedo.

  • although, though

けれども can be used as a conjunction to join two sentences. It goes after the verb or copula (です / だ) of the first sentence.

コンピューターは好きだけど、高いです。
konpyu-ta- wa suki dakedo, takai desu.
I like computers but they are expensive.

Fillers ええと

In English, we have our "um." in Japanese, they have their "eeto." This is the sound you make when you can't think of what to say, but want to say something!

何の動物が好きですか? nan no doubutsu ga suki desu ka? What animal do you like?

ええと・・・、ねこがすきです。 eeto..., neko ga suki desu. Um..., I like cats.

Very とても

とても totemo, often written as とっても tottemo.

Sometimes mom's cooking isn't just oishii (delicious) it is VERY OISHII!

Add とても totemo before adjectives to say "very"

とてもおいしいです。
totemo oishii desu.
It's very delicious!

とても大きな木です。
totemo ookina ki desu.
It is a very big tree.

OTHER VERY WORDS

非常に hijou ni 超 chou (kind of slang - chou means "super-")

I think と思います

This goes at the end to show that you believe what you say, but are not 100% sure. It is also used to show one's opinion.  If there is a desu change it to da which is the more casual form and add to omoimasu

1. The speaker is not totally sure of the accuracy of his info...

熊のプーさんはくまだと思います。
kuma no pu-san wa kuma da to omoimasu.
Winnie the Pooh is a bear, I think...

Next is an example of showing one's opinion. It is true for the speaker, but may not be so for the listener.

なっとうはおいしいと思います。
nattou wa oishii to omoimasu.
I think Natto is delicious

Basically you can say any sentence and if you want to soften it or show you are not sure, or show your opinion add to omoimasu

To want ~がほしい

Saying "I want (something)" is pretty easy. Just say the thing you want and add ga hoshii to it.

飲み物がほしいです。
nomimono ga hoshii desu.
(I) want a drink.

NOTE: The desu is not used in plain or informal Japanese.

Next, let's ask a question. Can you figure out how to do it? That's right add a ka

ケーキがほしいですか。
ke-ki ga hoshii desu ka.
Do you want cake?

ほしい hoshii is an adjective so can be conjugated just like other i-adjectives.

ケーキが欲しかったです。
ke-ki ga hoshikatta desu.
I wanted cake.

As ほしい hoshii is an adjective it can be used before nouns like other adjectives.

ほしい本があります。
hoshii hon ga arimasu.
There is a book I want.

Want to do~ ~たい

First get the ~ます masu form of the verb you want to do. Then drop the ~ます masu and add ~たい tai.

たべます tabemasu (to eat) たべ tabe たべたい tabetai (want to eat)
のみます nomimasu (to drink) のみ nomi のみたい nomitai (want to drink)
します shimasu (to do) し shi したい shitai (want to do)

Of course if you want to say "do you want to..." Just add ka

ケーキをたべたいですか。
ke-ki o tabetai desu ka.
Do you want to eat cake?

~たい tai is an adjective and can be conjugated like normal i-adjectives.

死にたかったです。
shinitakatta desu.
I wanted to die.

As ~たい tai is an adjective it can also be used before nouns like other adjectives.

読みたい本があります。
yomitai hon ga arimasu.
There is a book I want to read.

There is / There are

For inanimate objects (objects, plants...), end the sentence with ~が あります ga arimasu

木です。 ki desu. It's a tree. [lit. tree is.]

木があります。 ki ga arimasu. There is a tree(s).

For living things (people and animals) use ~が います ga imasu.

ねこがいます。 neko ga imasu. There is a cat(s).

To show the negative just add -sen to the end

あります arimasu  ありません arimasen Another more casual form of arimasu that you don't have to learn now is... ある aru  ない nai

います imasu  いません imasen Another more casual form of imasu that you don't have to learn now is... いる iru  いない inai

Maybe you know these useful phrases:

お願いがあります。 onegai ga arimasu. I have a favor to ask. 問題ない。 mondai nai. No problem! [this is the casual form of arimasen]

To like... がすき

It is easy to like something and to say it! Just add ga suki after the object that you like:

ねこがすきです。
neko ga suki desu.
I like cats.
[note: Nouns don't change in number (no s) so it could mean "a cat". Also note the desu is often dropped in speech - "neko ga suki." is fine!]


Why なぜ、どうして

2 ways to say "why" are:

  1. なぜ naze - why
  2. どうして doushite - why

They are basically interchangeable and start at the beginning of the sentence and are followed by the question

なぜ(どうして)私のケーキをたべましたか?
naze (doushite) watashi no ke-ki o tabemashita ka?
Why did you eat my cake?
[There isn't a "you" but obviously you wouldn't be asking yourself this question.]

You can skip ahead to lesson 4 to read about the related なぜなら.

STOP and test yourself.

Continue to lesson 3 Go back and review lesson 1

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