Grammar page 3
The third page of the grammar lessons.
But, a small word, but... There are other "buts" but demo is the most common. Learn this first and you can pick the others up later.
でも demo - but
nihongo ga suki demo, furansugo wa kirai desu.
I like Japanese, but I hate French.
From most formal to least formal けれども keredomo けれど keredo and けど kedo.
- although, though
konpyu-ta- wa suki dakedo, takai desu.
I like computers but they are expensive.
But ですが desu ga will be covered in a later lesson.
In English, we have our "um." in Japanese, they have their "eeto." This is the sound you make when you can't think of what to say, but want to say something!
何の動物が好きですか？ nan no doubutsu ga suki desu ka? What animal do you like?
ええと・・・、ねこがすきです。 eeto..., neko ga suki desu. Um..., I like cats.
とても totemo, often written as とっても tottemo.
Sometimes mom's cooking isn't just oishii (delicious) it is VERY OISHII!
Add とても totemo before adjectives to say "very"
totemo oishii desu.
It's very delicious!
totemo ookina ki desu.
It is a very big tree.
OTHER VERY WORDS
非常に hijou ni 超 chou (kind of slang - chou means "super-")
I think と思います
This goes at the end to show that you believe what you say, but are not 100% sure. It is also used to show one's opinion. If there is a desu change it to da which is the more casual form and add to omoimasu
1. The speaker is not totally sure of the accuracy of his info...
kuma no pu-san wa kuma da to omoimasu.
Winnie the Pooh is a bear, I think...
Next is an example of showing one's opinion. It is true for the speaker, but may not be so for the listener.
nattou wa oishii to omoimasu.
I think Natto is delicious
Basically you can say any sentence and if you want to soften it or show you are not sure, or show your opinion add to omoimasu
To want ～がほしい
Saying "I want (something)" is pretty easy. Just say the thing you want and add ga hoshii to it.
nomimono ga hoshii desu.
(I) want a drink.
NOTE: The desu is not used in plain or informal Japanese.
Next, let's ask a question. Can you figure out how to do it? That's right, add a ka.
ke-ki ga hoshii desu ka.
Do you want cake?
ほしい hoshii is an adjective so can be conjugated just like other i-adjectives.
ke-ki ga hoshikatta desu.
I wanted cake.
As ほしい hoshii is an adjective it can be used before nouns like other adjectives.
hoshii hon ga arimasu.
There is a book I want.
Want to do~ ～たい
First get the ～ます masu form of the verb you want to do. Then drop the ～ます masu and add ～たい tai.
たべます tabemasu (to eat) たべ tabe たべたい tabetai (want to eat)
のみます nomimasu (to drink) のみ nomi のみたい nomitai (want to drink)
します shimasu (to do) し shi したい shitai (want to do)
Of course if you want to say "do you want to..." Just add ka
ke-ki o tabetai desu ka.
Do you want to eat cake?
～たい tai is an adjective and can be conjugated like normal i-adjectives.
I wanted to die.
As ～たい tai is an adjective it can also be used before nouns like other adjectives.
yomitai hon ga arimasu.
There is a book I want to read.
There is / There are
For inanimate objects (objects, plants...), end the sentence with ～が あります ga arimasu
木です。 ki desu. It's a tree. [lit. tree is.]
木があります。 ki ga arimasu. There is a tree(s).
For living things (people and animals) use ～が います ga imasu.
ねこがいます。 neko ga imasu. There is a cat(s).
To show the negative just add -sen to the end
あります arimasu ありません arimasen Another more casual form of arimasu that you don't have to learn now is... ある aru ない nai
います imasu いません imasen Another more casual form of imasu that you don't have to learn now is... いる iru いない inai
Maybe you know these useful phrases:
お願いがあります。 onegai ga arimasu. I have a favor to ask. 問題ない。 mondai nai. No problem! [this is the casual form of arimasen]
To like... がすき
It is easy to like something and to say it! Just add ga suki after the object that you like:
neko ga suki desu.
I like cats.
[note: Nouns don't change in number (no s) so it could mean "a cat". Also note the desu is often dropped in speech - "neko ga suki." is fine!]
2 ways to say "why" are:
- なぜ naze - why
- どうして doushite - why
They are basically interchangeable and start at the beginning of the sentence and are followed by the question
naze (doushite) watashi no ke-ki o tabemashita ka?
Why did you eat my cake?
[There isn't a "you" but obviously you wouldn't be asking yourself this question.]
You can skip ahead to lesson 5 to read about the related なぜなら.
Making adverbs from adjectives
However i-adjectives and na-adjectives can be used other ways as well.
- Adjectives at the ends of sentences.
クレイさんの車は赤いです。kureisan no kuruma wa akai desu.
Clay's car is red.
クレイさんは元気です。kureisan wa genki desu.
Clay is well.
In polite (~masu form) text both sorts of adjectives are used with です desu after them. With i-adjectives it is usual to have the adjective change, but the desu not changing. (前の車は黒かったです。mae no kuruma wa kurokatta desu. The previous car was black.)
In dictionary (plain) form i-adjectives need nothing after them at the end of sentences. (クレイさんの車は赤い kureisan no kuruma wa akai) but na-adjectives are more like nouns and have to have the plain copola だ da after them (クレイは元気だ。kurei wa genki da.)
- Turning adjectives into adverbs
Both i-adjectives and na-adjectives can be turned into adverbs, that is used to modify verbs. Let's see how that works.
i-adjective as an adverb
クレイさんの車は速く走っています。kureisan no kuruma wa hayaku hashitteimasu.
Clay's car is going fast.
As you can see you just change the final 'i' to a 'ku'.
And now for na-adjectives.
ポールさんは下手に歌っています。po-rusan wa heta ni utatteimasu.
Paul is singing badly.
This time you just put a 'ni' after the na-adjective (instead of a 'na').
STOP and test yourself.