Grammar page 4

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If you know how to make this form, you can do a lot!  Later we will look at other grammar points that are based on the te form.  By itself the te form makes a verb a request (or demand)  
If you know how to make this form, you can do a lot!  Later we will look at other grammar points that are based on the te form.  By itself the te form makes a verb a request (or demand)  
-
1. のむ nomu (to drink) > のんで nonde (drink)
+
# のむ nomu (to drink) > のんで nonde (drink)
-
2. たべる taberu (to eat)> たべて tabete (eat)
+
# たべる taberu (to eat)> たべて tabete (eat)
-
3. する suru (to do) > して shite (do)
+
# する suru (to do) > して shite (do)
These are the ways to make the te form for each of the 3 types of verbs.  If you are new to the "types of verbs" thing, don't worry.  Now I know there are many grammarians out there that would argue against what I am about to say, but here's my advice.  Don't worry about learning all the confusing rules about how to make this verb do that.  Just say it as you feel it should be.  Of course you will make many mistakes, but if you keep your ears open and learn from your mistakes you will get a feel for how the verbs work.  Take the te form for an example.  If you memorize the 3 examples at the top you should be able to guess what other verbs may change to.  Or even if you guess wrong, the correct form should be at least familiar to you.   
These are the ways to make the te form for each of the 3 types of verbs.  If you are new to the "types of verbs" thing, don't worry.  Now I know there are many grammarians out there that would argue against what I am about to say, but here's my advice.  Don't worry about learning all the confusing rules about how to make this verb do that.  Just say it as you feel it should be.  Of course you will make many mistakes, but if you keep your ears open and learn from your mistakes you will get a feel for how the verbs work.  Take the te form for an example.  If you memorize the 3 examples at the top you should be able to guess what other verbs may change to.  Or even if you guess wrong, the correct form should be at least familiar to you.   
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==-ing ている==
==-ing ている==
-
 
This is a very important grammar point.  It corresponds to the English "-ing" form
This is a very important grammar point.  It corresponds to the English "-ing" form
EAT > EATING (now)
EAT > EATING (now)
-
たべます > 食べて います
+
たべます > 食べています
CONSTRUCTION: て form + います or いる
CONSTRUCTION: て form + います or いる
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Use this to describe things happening now.
Use this to describe things happening now.
-
1.今 あなた に 話して います。 ima anata ni hanashite imasu. (I am talking to you now.)
+
1.今あなたに話しています。 ima anata ni hanashite imasu. (I am talking to you now.)<br>
-
2.今 ごはん を 食べて います。 ima gohan o tabete imasu. (I am eating rice (food) now.)
+
2.今ごはんを食べています。 ima gohan o tabete imasu. (I am eating rice (food) now.)<br>
-
3.今 スカイダイビング を して います。 ima sukaidaibingu o shite imasu. (I am skydiving now.)
+
3.今スカイダイビングをしています。 ima sukaidaibingu o shite imasu. (I am skydiving now.)
To make a question just add か to the end.  
To make a question just add か to the end.  
-
あなた は 勉強 して います か?anata wa benkyou shite imasu ka? (Are you studying?)
+
あなたは勉強しています か?anata wa benkyou shite imasu ka? (Are you studying?)
[http://thejapanesepage.com/teiru.htm more on this]
[http://thejapanesepage.com/teiru.htm more on this]
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Anytime you want to make an illustration or give an example this is the phrase to use.
Anytime you want to make an illustration or give an example this is the phrase to use.
-
私 は 和食 が 好き です。
+
私は和食が好きです。<br>
-
watashi wa washoku ga suki desu.
+
watashi wa washoku ga suki desu.<br>
I like Japanese style food.
I like Japanese style food.
-
たとえば、ごはんと  みそ汁。
+
たとえば、ごはんとみそ汁。<br>
-
tatoeba, gohan to misoshiru .
+
tatoeba, gohan to misoshiru.<br>
-
For example, rice and miso soup .
+
For example, rice and miso soup.
   
   
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You can also ask someone this to get more concrete information.
You can also ask someone this to get more concrete information.
-
たとえば、 何?
+
たとえば、何?<br>
-
tatoeba, nani?
+
tatoeba, nani?<br>
For example, what?
For example, what?
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これ kore - When "this" is not connected to a noun - hang on you will get it in a minute
これ kore - When "this" is not connected to a noun - hang on you will get it in a minute
-
これ は 何 です か?
+
これは何ですか?<br>
-
kore wa nan desu ka?
+
kore wa nan desu ka?<br>
What is this?
What is this?
-
これ は ねこ です。
+
これはねこです。
kore wa neko desu.
kore wa neko desu.
This is a cat.
This is a cat.
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この kono - When you put "this" before a noun, it changes to kono
この kono - When you put "this" before a noun, it changes to kono
-
この ねこ は ポチ です か?
+
このねこはポチですか?<br>
-
kono neko wa pochi desu ka?
+
kono neko wa pochi desu ka?<br>
Is this cat, Pochi?.
Is this cat, Pochi?.
-
いいえ。 この 犬 は ポチ です。
+
いいえ。この犬はポチです。<br>
-
iie kono inu wa pochi desu.
+
iie kono inu wa pochi desu.<br>
No. This dog is Pochi.
No. This dog is Pochi.
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==That それ・その==
==That それ・その==
-
 
This and that. Now we are on the THAT part.  So this THAT refers to objects near the listener (not the speaker)
This and that. Now we are on the THAT part.  So this THAT refers to objects near the listener (not the speaker)
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それ sore - when "that" is not connected to a noun
それ sore - when "that" is not connected to a noun
-
それ は 何 です か?
+
それは何ですか?<br>
-
sore wa nan desu ka?
+
sore wa nan desu ka?<br>
What is that?
What is that?
-
それ は ねこ です。
+
それはねこです。<br>
-
sore wa neko desu.
+
sore wa neko desu.<br>
That is a cat.
That is a cat.
Begin to think of the words starting with K's as "this" and the S's as "that" words   
Begin to think of the words starting with K's as "this" and the S's as "that" words   
-
 
-
 
その sono - When you put "that" before a noun, it changes to sono
その sono - When you put "that" before a noun, it changes to sono
-
その ねこ は ポチ です か?
+
そのねこはポチですか?<br>
-
sono neko wa pochi desu ka?
+
sono neko wa pochi desu ka?<br>
Is that cat, Pochi?.
Is that cat, Pochi?.
-
いいえ。 その たこ は ポチ です。
+
いいえ。そのたこはポチです。<br>
-
iie sono tako wa pochi desu.
+
iie sono tako wa pochi desu.<br>
No. That octopus is Pochi.
No. That octopus is Pochi.
This is used in the same way as kono
This is used in the same way as kono
-
 
-
----
 
==That over there あれ・あの==
==That over there あれ・あの==
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あれ are - when "that" is not connected to a noun
あれ are - when "that" is not connected to a noun
-
あれ は 何 です か?
+
あれは何ですか?<br>
-
are wa nan desu ka?
+
are wa nan desu ka?<br>
What is that over there?
What is that over there?
-
あれ は ねこ です。
+
あれはねこです。<br>
-
are wa neko desu.
+
are wa neko desu.<br>
That over there is a cat.
That over there is a cat.
And now recognize A's mean That over there     
And now recognize A's mean That over there     
   
   
-
 
-
 
あの ano - When you put "that" before a noun, it changes to ano
あの ano - When you put "that" before a noun, it changes to ano
-
あの ねこ は ポチ です か?
+
あのねこはポチですか?<br>
-
ano neko wa pochi desu ka?
+
ano neko wa pochi desu ka?<br>
Is that cat over there, Pochi?.
Is that cat over there, Pochi?.
-
いいえ。 あの くじら は ポチ です。
+
いいえ。あのくじらはポチです。<br>
-
iie ano kujira wa pochi desu.
+
iie ano kujira wa pochi desu.<br>
No. That whale over there is Pochi.
No. That whale over there is Pochi.
Again they ALL are used in the same way.
Again they ALL are used in the same way.
-
 
-
----
 
==Must do なければなりません==
==Must do なければなりません==
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TO MAKE IT:  plain negative form - i +  ければ なりません kereba narimasen
TO MAKE IT:  plain negative form - i +  ければ なりません kereba narimasen
-
ピーマン を 食べなければ なりません。 [Would be 食べない for the plain negative form ]
+
ピーマンを食べなければなりません。 [Would be 食べない for the plain negative form ]<br>
-
pi-man o tabenakereba narimasen.
+
pi-man o tabenakereba narimasen.<br>
(I) must eat green peppers.  (Many Japanese children don't like green peppers)
(I) must eat green peppers.  (Many Japanese children don't like green peppers)
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Perhaps the most useful usage is:
Perhaps the most useful usage is:
-
~しなければ なりません
+
~しなければなりません<br>
The し shi is from suru (to do)
The し shi is from suru (to do)
-
勉強 しなければ なりません。
+
勉強しなければなりません。<br>
-
benkyou shinakereba narimasen.
+
benkyou shinakereba narimasen.<br>
(I) must (have to) study.
(I) must (have to) study.
-
しなければ なりません。
+
しなければなりません。<br>
-
shinakereba narimasen.
+
shinakereba narimasen.<br>
(I) must (have to) do (it).
(I) must (have to) do (it).
-
----
+
==~たほうがいい==
-
 
+
-
==た ほうがいい==
+
-
 
+
When giving advice this is useful.   
When giving advice this is useful.   
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CONSTRUCTION: ta form (#3) + ほう が いい hou ga ii
CONSTRUCTION: ta form (#3) + ほう が いい hou ga ii
-
休んだ ほう が いい。
+
休んだほうがいい。<br>
-
yasunda hou ga ii.
+
yasunda hou ga ii.<br>
It would be better to rest.
It would be better to rest.
-
聞いた ほう が いい。
+
聞いたほうがいい。<br>
-
kiita hou ga ii.
+
kiita hou ga ii.<br>
It would be better to ask (someone).
It would be better to ask (someone).
NOTE: The ta form is the same as the past tense. (But obviously it is not past here)
NOTE: The ta form is the same as the past tense. (But obviously it is not past here)
-
 
-
----
 
==better / worse than より、のほうがいい==
==better / worse than より、のほうがいい==
-
 
This has the same hou ga ii  as above.  But here we using it to compare things.  Also we will introduce yori (less than).
This has the same hou ga ii  as above.  But here we using it to compare things.  Also we will introduce yori (less than).
-
~の ほう が いい ~no hou ga ii (more than),  
+
~のほうがいい ~no hou ga ii (more than), <br>
-
~より ~yori (less than)  
+
~より ~yori (less than)  
This is a little confusing if you think too much on this! But I suggest memorizing one or two examples and then you should be able to keep it straight.
This is a little confusing if you think too much on this! But I suggest memorizing one or two examples and then you should be able to keep it straight.
-
わたし は いぬ より、 ねこ の ほう が 好き。
+
わたしはいぬより、ねこのほうが好き。<br>
-
watashi wa inu yori, neko no hou ga suki.
+
watashi wa inu yori, neko no hou ga suki.<br>
I like dogs less than cats. (I like cats more than dogs.)
I like dogs less than cats. (I like cats more than dogs.)
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Notice in English we use either "less than" or "more than" and the meaning is understood by the order of "dogs" and "cats" BUT in Japanese this is also ok:
Notice in English we use either "less than" or "more than" and the meaning is understood by the order of "dogs" and "cats" BUT in Japanese this is also ok:
-
わたし は ねこ の ほう が 、いぬ より 好き。
+
わたしはねこのほうが、いぬより好き。<br>
watashi wa neko no hou ga inu, yori suki
watashi wa neko no hou ga inu, yori suki
'''Continue to [[Grammar page 4|lesson 4]]'''
'''Continue to [[Grammar page 4|lesson 4]]'''

Revision as of 08:58, 7 August 2006

The third page of the grammar lessons.

Contents

Making the て form

If you know how to make this form, you can do a lot! Later we will look at other grammar points that are based on the te form. By itself the te form makes a verb a request (or demand)

  1. のむ nomu (to drink) > のんで nonde (drink)
  2. たべる taberu (to eat)> たべて tabete (eat)
  3. する suru (to do) > して shite (do)

These are the ways to make the te form for each of the 3 types of verbs. If you are new to the "types of verbs" thing, don't worry. Now I know there are many grammarians out there that would argue against what I am about to say, but here's my advice. Don't worry about learning all the confusing rules about how to make this verb do that. Just say it as you feel it should be. Of course you will make many mistakes, but if you keep your ears open and learn from your mistakes you will get a feel for how the verbs work. Take the te form for an example. If you memorize the 3 examples at the top you should be able to guess what other verbs may change to. Or even if you guess wrong, the correct form should be at least familiar to you.


Become になります

To show the state of becoming... something, use ~に なります ni narimasu The ni is placed after what is becoming something. The narimasu means to become. Nouns and -na adjectives use ni narimasu. -i adjectives are different, but for now there are enough useful nouns to look at:

夜になりました。
yoru ni narimashita.
It has become night.
[~mashita shows past]

友達になりましょう。
tomodachi ni narimashou.
Let's become friends.
[the ~mashou means "let's"]

げんきになりました。
genki ni narimashita.
(I) have become fine / healthy.

To do, play する・します

Suru is a very useful verb. It is used where no other verb dares to go! (Foreign words, nouns, and other scary things...) Think of it as "to do..."

ジョギングする jogingu suru - to (do) jogging
ショッピングする shoppingu suru - to (do) shopping
サインする sain suru - to sign (autograph)

USEFUL JAPANESE + SURU

勉強する benkyou suru - to study
毎日、日本語を勉強します。
mainichi, nihongo o benkyou shimasu.
Everyday, (I) am studying Japanese.

The を o is the direct object marker. You will notice it moves around sometimes. Don't worry about this now, just concentrate on suru.

Another usage of する -or- します is "to play" as in sports or games

野球をする yakyuu o suru. To play baseball.
相撲をする。 sumou o suru. To play (do) Sumo.
バスケットバールをする。 basuketto ba-ru o suru. To play basketball.
将棋をする。 shougi o suru. To play shogi (Japanese chess)

more, ~er もっと

One easy way to say "MORE" or "-er" is to add a もっと motto before the thing you want to emphasis. This is one of the rare times that the word order is the same with English - or at least with the more part! Relish the moment (while you can)

{ motto ~ = more ~ }

もっとピーマンを食べなさい。 motto pi-man o tabenasai. Eat more green peppers.[~nasai is like the te form in that it gives commands, but it is stronger. ]

AND FOR THE:

{ motto ~ = ~er }

もっと早く言って下さい。 motto hayaku itte kudasai. (Next time) please say (it) a little earlier. [Useful when someone tells you NOT to cut the yellow wire of the bomb after you have done that...]

Can できます

There are a couple of ways to say "I can..." in Japanese. The easiest is できます dekimasu. Let's look at how to form some sentences.

CAN + NOUN [できます]

1. 日本語ができます。 nihongo ga dekimasu.
I can (speak) Japanese. [I can do Japanese.]

2. 漢字ができます。 kanji ga dekimasu.
I can (read/write) kanji. [I can do kanji.]

3. スカイダイビングができます。 sukaidaibingu ga dekimasu.
I can skydive.


CAN + VERB [ことができます]

Actually, the above are all shortened versions without the verb. Let's add the verb. koto means thing, but here it is used to make a verb a noun so it will work with dekimasu.

1 日本語を話すことができます。 nihongo o hanasu koto ga dekimasu.
I can speak Japanese.

2 漢字を読むことができます。 kanji o yomu koto ga dekimasu.
I can read kanji.

Be creative and come up with things you can do!

more on this

-ing ている

This is a very important grammar point. It corresponds to the English "-ing" form

EAT > EATING (now) たべます > 食べています

CONSTRUCTION: て form + います or いる

Use this to describe things happening now.

1.今あなたに話しています。 ima anata ni hanashite imasu. (I am talking to you now.)
2.今ごはんを食べています。 ima gohan o tabete imasu. (I am eating rice (food) now.)
3.今スカイダイビングをしています。 ima sukaidaibingu o shite imasu. (I am skydiving now.)

To make a question just add か to the end.

あなたは勉強しています か?anata wa benkyou shite imasu ka? (Are you studying?)

more on this


For example たとえば

Anytime you want to make an illustration or give an example this is the phrase to use.

私は和食が好きです。
watashi wa washoku ga suki desu.
I like Japanese style food.

たとえば、ごはんとみそ汁。
tatoeba, gohan to misoshiru.
For example, rice and miso soup.


You can also ask someone this to get more concrete information.

たとえば、何?
tatoeba, nani?
For example, what?

more on power words


This これ・この

This and that. Actually Japanese also has one more. They also have "that over there" - but we will get at that later.

There are 2 words in Japanese that are translated as "this" in English:

これ kore - When "this" is not connected to a noun - hang on you will get it in a minute

これは何ですか?
kore wa nan desu ka?
What is this?

これはねこです。 kore wa neko desu. This is a cat.

To say "This is" or "is this" the kore will probably be followed by a は wa


この kono - When you put "this" before a noun, it changes to kono

このねこはポチですか?
kono neko wa pochi desu ka?
Is this cat, Pochi?.

いいえ。この犬はポチです。
iie kono inu wa pochi desu.
No. This dog is Pochi.

It may seem strange at first, but after a while This and That become second nature!


That それ・その

This and that. Now we are on the THAT part. So this THAT refers to objects near the listener (not the speaker)

それ sore - when "that" is not connected to a noun

それは何ですか?
sore wa nan desu ka?
What is that?

それはねこです。
sore wa neko desu.
That is a cat.

Begin to think of the words starting with K's as "this" and the S's as "that" words

その sono - When you put "that" before a noun, it changes to sono

そのねこはポチですか?
sono neko wa pochi desu ka?
Is that cat, Pochi?.

いいえ。そのたこはポチです。
iie sono tako wa pochi desu.
No. That octopus is Pochi.

This is used in the same way as kono

That over there あれ・あの

This and that. Now we are on the THAT OVER THERE part. So this THAT refers to objects not near the listener or the speaker.

あれ are - when "that" is not connected to a noun

あれは何ですか?
are wa nan desu ka?
What is that over there?

あれはねこです。
are wa neko desu.
That over there is a cat.

And now recognize A's mean That over there

あの ano - When you put "that" before a noun, it changes to ano

あのねこはポチですか?
ano neko wa pochi desu ka?
Is that cat over there, Pochi?.

いいえ。あのくじらはポチです。
iie ano kujira wa pochi desu.
No. That whale over there is Pochi.

Again they ALL are used in the same way.

Must do なければなりません

This is a mouthful! But it is so useful. Learn it well

TO MAKE IT: plain negative form - i +  ければ なりません kereba narimasen

ピーマンを食べなければなりません。 [Would be 食べない for the plain negative form ]
pi-man o tabenakereba narimasen.
(I) must eat green peppers. (Many Japanese children don't like green peppers)

Say that 5 times fast with your mouth full!

Perhaps the most useful usage is:

~しなければなりません
The し shi is from suru (to do)

勉強しなければなりません。
benkyou shinakereba narimasen.
(I) must (have to) study.

しなければなりません。
shinakereba narimasen.
(I) must (have to) do (it).

~たほうがいい

When giving advice this is useful.

CONSTRUCTION: ta form (#3) + ほう が いい hou ga ii

休んだほうがいい。
yasunda hou ga ii.
It would be better to rest.

聞いたほうがいい。
kiita hou ga ii.
It would be better to ask (someone).

NOTE: The ta form is the same as the past tense. (But obviously it is not past here)

better / worse than より、のほうがいい

This has the same hou ga ii as above. But here we using it to compare things. Also we will introduce yori (less than).

~のほうがいい ~no hou ga ii (more than),
~より ~yori (less than)

This is a little confusing if you think too much on this! But I suggest memorizing one or two examples and then you should be able to keep it straight.

わたしはいぬより、ねこのほうが好き。
watashi wa inu yori, neko no hou ga suki.
I like dogs less than cats. (I like cats more than dogs.)

You should spend some time studying the above example to understand how the ordering works.

Notice in English we use either "less than" or "more than" and the meaning is understood by the order of "dogs" and "cats" BUT in Japanese this is also ok:

わたしはねこのほうが、いぬより好き。
watashi wa neko no hou ga inu, yori suki

Continue to lesson 4

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