Grammar page 4

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(Become ?????/?????)
 
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The third page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
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The fourth page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
[[category:Grammar]]
[[category:Grammar]]
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==Making adverbs from adjectives==
 
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However i-adjectives and na-adjectives can be used other ways as well. 
 
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* Adjectives at the ends of sentences.
 
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クレイさんの車は赤いです。kureisan no kuruma wa akai desu.<br>
 
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Clay's car is red.
 
-
 
-
クレイさんは元気です。kureisan wa genki desu.<br>
 
-
Clay is well.
 
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In polite (~masu form) text both sorts of adjectives are used with です desu after them.  With i-adjectives it is usual to have the adjective change, but the desu not changing. (前の車は黒かったです。mae no kuruma wa kurokatta desu. The previous car was black.)
 
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In dictionary (plain) form i-adjectives need nothing after them at the end of sentences. (クレイさんの車は赤い kureisan no kuruma wa akai) but na-adjectives are more like nouns and have to have the plain copola だ da after them (クレイは元気だ。kurei wa genki da.)
 
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* Turning adjectives into adverbs
 
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Both i-adjectives and na-adjectives can be turned into adverbs, that is used to modify verbs.  Let's see how that works.
 
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i-adjective as an adverb<br>
 
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クレイさんの車は速く走っています。kureisan no kuruma wa hayaku hashitteimasu.<br>
 
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Clay's car is going fast.
 
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As you can see you just change the final 'i' to a 'ku'.
 
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And now for na-adjectives.<br>
 
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ポールさんは下手に歌っています。po-rusan wa heta ni utatteimasu.<br>
 
-
Paul is singing badly.
 
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This time you just put a 'ni' after the na-adjective (instead of a 'na').
 
==Making the て form==
==Making the て form==
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# する suru (to do) > して shite (do)
# する suru (to do) > して shite (do)
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These are the ways to make the te form for each of the 3 types of verbs.  If you are new to the "types of verbs" thing, don't worry. Now I know there are many grammarians out there that would argue against what I am about to say, but here's my advice. Don't worry about learning all the confusing rules about how to make this verb do that.  Just say it as you feel it should be.  Of course you will make many mistakes, but if you keep your ears open and learn from your mistakes you will get a feel for how the verbs work. Take the te form for an example.  If you memorize the 3 examples at the top you should be able to guess what other verbs may change to.  Or even if you guess wrong, the correct form should be at least familiar to you.
+
These are the ways to make the te form for each of the 3 types of verbs.  If you are new to the "types of verbs" thing, don't worry.  
 +
Different people have different ways of learning that are best for them. Pick the one you feel is best for you. What follows are some different opinions on the utility of grammar for learning.
-
==Become になります==
+
There are many grammarians out there that would argue against what I am about to say, but here's my advice. Don't worry about learning all the confusing rules about how to make this verb do that. Just say it as you feel it should be.  Of course you will make many mistakes, but if you keep your ears open and learn from your mistakes you will get a feel for how the verbs work.  Take the te form for an example.  If you memorize the 3 examples at the top you should be able to guess what other verbs may change to.  Or even if you guess wrong, the correct form should be at least familiar to you.
 +
 
 +
There are many grammar rules and abstractions that hinder learning. But I think that some understanding of why people say things like this or like that actually turns random sounds and forms into something meaningful and logical. If I kind of understand how the language is orderly and not random sounds stacked together, I can memorize and recall it better. Following this logic, the advice should be: Only learn grammar that you find helpful.
 +
 
 +
Lastly, an empirical overview of the te form and co-occuring sound changes:
 +
 
 +
verbs ending in む/ぬ/ぶ replace by んで
 +
verbs ending in く/ぐ replace by いて いで
 +
verbs ending in す replace して
 +
verbs ending in う/つ replace by って
 +
 godan (五段) verbs ending in る replace by って
 +
 ichidan (一段) verbs ending in る replace by て
 +
 verb する replace by して
 +
 verb 来(く)る replace by 来(き)て
 +
verb 行(い)く replace by 行(い)って
 +
 
 +
==Become になります/に成ります==
To show the state of becoming... something, use ~に なります ni narimasu The ni is placed after what is becoming something.  The narimasu means to become.  Nouns and -na adjectives use ni narimasu.  -i adjectives are different, but for now there are enough useful nouns to look at:
To show the state of becoming... something, use ~に なります ni narimasu The ni is placed after what is becoming something.  The narimasu means to become.  Nouns and -na adjectives use ni narimasu.  -i adjectives are different, but for now there are enough useful nouns to look at:
夜になりました。<br>
夜になりました。<br>
 +
よるになりました。<br>
yoru ni narimashita.<br>
yoru ni narimashita.<br>
 +
夜【よる】:night,<br>
 +
成る【なる】:to become<br>
It has become night.<br>
It has become night.<br>
[~mashita shows past]
[~mashita shows past]
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友達になりましょう。<br>
+
友達に成りましょう。<br>
 +
ともだちになりましょう。<br>
tomodachi ni narimashou.<br>
tomodachi ni narimashou.<br>
 +
友達【ともだち】:friend,<br>
 +
成る【なる】: to become<br>
Let's become friends.<br>
Let's become friends.<br>
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[the ~mashou means "let's"]
+
[the ~ましょう[~mashou] means "let's"]
 +
元気に成りました。<br>
げんきになりました。<br>
げんきになりました。<br>
genki ni narimashita.<br>
genki ni narimashita.<br>
-
(I) have become fine / healthy.
+
元気【げんき】:/healthy/O.K./fine<br>
 +
成る【なる】:to become<br>
 +
"(I) have become fine / healthy."
 +
 
 +
日本人に成りましょうから。<br>
 +
日本人【にほんじん】Japanese (people)<br>
 +
から starting point / because <br>
 +
Because he aquired the Japanese citizenship. <br>
 +
 
 +
オタクに成りました。<br>
 +
オタク nerd<br>
 +
He became a nerd.<br>
==To do, play する・します==
==To do, play する・します==
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勉強する benkyou suru - to study<br>
勉強する benkyou suru - to study<br>
毎日、日本語を勉強します。<br>
毎日、日本語を勉強します。<br>
 +
まいにち、にほんごべんきょうします。<br>
mainichi, nihongo o benkyou shimasu.<br>
mainichi, nihongo o benkyou shimasu.<br>
Everyday, (I) am studying Japanese.
Everyday, (I) am studying Japanese.
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===Another usage of する -or- します is "to play" as in sports or games===
===Another usage of する -or- します is "to play" as in sports or games===
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野球をする yakyuu o suru. To play baseball.<br>
+
野球をする。<br>
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相撲をする。 sumou o suru. To play (do) Sumo. <br>
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やきゅうをする。<br>
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バスケットバールをする。 basuketto ba-ru o suru. To play basketball. <br>
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yakyuu o suru.<br>
-
将棋をする。 shougi o suru. To play shogi (Japanese chess)
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To play baseball.<br>
 +
相撲をする。<br>
 +
すもうをする。<br>
 +
sumou o suru. To play (do) Sumo. <br>
 +
バスケットバールをする。<br>
 +
basuketto ba-ru o suru.<br>
 +
To play basketball. <br>
 +
将棋をする。<br>
 +
しょうぎをそる。<br>
 +
shougi o suru.<br>
 +
To play shogi (Japanese chess)
==more, ~er もっと==
==more, ~er もっと==
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moshi hoshikattara,<br>
moshi hoshikattara,<br>
If you want (it), - when offering something to someone
If you want (it), - when offering something to someone
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 +
more on [[Conditionals]]
==Can できます==
==Can できます==
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あなたは勉強していますか。anata wa benkyou shite imasu ka. (Are you studying?)
あなたは勉強していますか。anata wa benkyou shite imasu ka. (Are you studying?)
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[http://thejapanesepage.com/teiru.htm more on this]
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[http://thejapanesepage.com/teiru.htm more on this]<br>
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[[ている as a habitual action]]
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==This これ・この==
==This これ・この==
-
 
This and that. Actually Japanese also has one more.  They also have "that over there" - but we will get at that later.
This and that. Actually Japanese also has one more.  They also have "that over there" - but we will get at that later.
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To say "This is" or "is this" the kore will probably be followed by a は wa
To say "This is" or "is this" the kore will probably be followed by a は wa
   
   
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-
 
この kono - When you put "this" before a noun, it changes to kono
この kono - When you put "this" before a noun, it changes to kono
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It may seem strange at first, but after a while This and That become second nature!
It may seem strange at first, but after a while This and That become second nature!
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-
----
 
==That それ・その==
==That それ・その==
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あれは何ですか?<br>
あれは何ですか?<br>
 +
あれはなんですか?<br>
are wa nan desu ka?<br>
are wa nan desu ka?<br>
What is that over there?
What is that over there?
 +
あれは猫です。<br>
あれはねこです。<br>
あれはねこです。<br>
are wa neko desu.<br>
are wa neko desu.<br>
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Again they ALL are used in the same way.
Again they ALL are used in the same way.
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[[Category:Grammar]]
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 5|lesson 5]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 3|lesson 3]]'''
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 4|lesson 4]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 2|lesson 2]]'''
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Current revision as of 17:48, 14 May 2010

The fourth page of the grammar lessons.

Contents

Making the て form

If you know how to make this form, you can do a lot! Later we will look at other grammar points that are based on the te form. By itself the te form makes a verb a request (or demand)

  1. のむ nomu (to drink) > のんで nonde (drink)
  2. たべる taberu (to eat)> たべて tabete (eat)
  3. する suru (to do) > して shite (do)

These are the ways to make the te form for each of the 3 types of verbs. If you are new to the "types of verbs" thing, don't worry. Different people have different ways of learning that are best for them. Pick the one you feel is best for you. What follows are some different opinions on the utility of grammar for learning.

There are many grammarians out there that would argue against what I am about to say, but here's my advice. Don't worry about learning all the confusing rules about how to make this verb do that. Just say it as you feel it should be. Of course you will make many mistakes, but if you keep your ears open and learn from your mistakes you will get a feel for how the verbs work. Take the te form for an example. If you memorize the 3 examples at the top you should be able to guess what other verbs may change to. Or even if you guess wrong, the correct form should be at least familiar to you.

There are many grammar rules and abstractions that hinder learning. But I think that some understanding of why people say things like this or like that actually turns random sounds and forms into something meaningful and logical. If I kind of understand how the language is orderly and not random sounds stacked together, I can memorize and recall it better. Following this logic, the advice should be: Only learn grammar that you find helpful.

Lastly, an empirical overview of the te form and co-occuring sound changes:

verbs ending in む/ぬ/ぶ replace by んで 
verbs ending in く/ぐ replace by いて いで 
verbs ending in す replace して 
verbs ending in う/つ replace by って 

 godan (五段) verbs ending in る replace by って  ichidan (一段) verbs ending in る replace by て  verb する replace by して  verb 来(く)る replace by 来(き)て

verb 行(い)く replace by 行(い)って

Become になります/に成ります

To show the state of becoming... something, use ~に なります ni narimasu The ni is placed after what is becoming something. The narimasu means to become. Nouns and -na adjectives use ni narimasu. -i adjectives are different, but for now there are enough useful nouns to look at:

夜になりました。
よるになりました。
yoru ni narimashita.
夜【よる】:night,
成る【なる】:to become
It has become night.
[~mashita shows past]

友達に成りましょう。
ともだちになりましょう。
tomodachi ni narimashou.
友達【ともだち】:friend,
成る【なる】: to become
Let's become friends.
[the ~ましょう[~mashou] means "let's"]

元気に成りました。
げんきになりました。
genki ni narimashita.
元気【げんき】:/healthy/O.K./fine
成る【なる】:to become
"(I) have become fine / healthy."

日本人に成りましょうから。
日本人【にほんじん】Japanese (people)
から starting point / because
Because he aquired the Japanese citizenship.

オタクに成りました。
オタク nerd
He became a nerd.

To do, play する・します

Suru is a very useful verb. It is used where no other verb dares to go! (Foreign words, nouns, and other scary things...) Think of it as "to do..."

ジョギングする jogingu suru - to (do) jogging
ショッピングする shoppingu suru - to (do) shopping
サインする sain suru - to sign (autograph)

USEFUL JAPANESE + SURU

勉強する benkyou suru - to study
毎日、日本語を勉強します。
まいにち、にほんごべんきょうします。
mainichi, nihongo o benkyou shimasu.
Everyday, (I) am studying Japanese.

The を o is the direct object marker. You will notice it moves around sometimes. Don't worry about this now, just concentrate on suru.

Another usage of する -or- します is "to play" as in sports or games

野球をする。
やきゅうをする。
yakyuu o suru.
To play baseball.
相撲をする。
すもうをする。
sumou o suru. To play (do) Sumo.
バスケットバールをする。
basuketto ba-ru o suru.
To play basketball.
将棋をする。
しょうぎをそる。
shougi o suru.
To play shogi (Japanese chess)

more, ~er もっと

One easy way to say "MORE" or "-er" is to add a もっと motto before the thing you want to emphasis. This is one of the rare times that the word order is the same with English - or at least with the more part! Relish the moment (while you can)

{ motto ~ = more ~ }

もっとピーマンを食べなさい。 motto pi-man o tabenasai. Eat more green peppers.[~nasai is like the te form in that it gives commands, but it is stronger. ]

AND FOR THE:

{ motto ~ = ~er }

もっと早く言って下さい。 motto hayaku itte kudasai. (Next time) please say (it) a little earlier. [Useful when someone tells you NOT to cut the yellow wire of the bomb after you have done that...]

if

There are several different ways of adding the 'if' meaning to a sentence. Here えば, たら and なら are covered.

えば eba

えば Replace the final 'u' of the romaji version with 'eba'. For example the godan verb 'aruku' becomes 'arukeba'. The ichidan verb 'taberu' becomes 'tabereba'.

歩けば十分かかります。arukeba juppun kakarimasu.
If you walk it will take 10 minutes.

たら tara

たら is formed the same way as the past tense of the dictionary verb with ら added. So 'iu' goes to past tense 'itta' to 'ittara'.

手伝うと言ったらそうするでしょう。tetsudau to ittara sou suru deshou.
If he said he'd help then he will.

なら nara

なら goes after the dictionary form of a verb.

手伝う(の)ならさっそくはじめてください。tetsudau (no) nara sassoku hajimete kudasai.
If you're going to help, get started now please.

もし moshi

もし is a word that goes at the start of a sentence and lets you know that an 'if' phrase is coming up. もし can be added to all of the above example sentences.

Special 'if' phrases

Some useful phrases ...

もしよければ・・・
moshi yokereba...
If it is ok with you... [let's do this...]

もしほしかったら、
moshi hoshikattara,
If you want (it), - when offering something to someone

more on Conditionals

Can できます

There are a couple of ways to say "I can..." in Japanese. The easiest is できます dekimasu. Let's look at how to form some sentences.

CAN + NOUN [できます]

1. 日本語ができます。 nihongo ga dekimasu.
I can (speak) Japanese. [I can do Japanese.]

2. 漢字ができます。 kanji ga dekimasu.
I can (read/write) kanji. [I can do kanji.]

3. スカイダイビングができます。 sukaidaibingu ga dekimasu.
I can skydive.


CAN + VERB [ことができます]

Actually, the above are all shortened versions without the verb. Let's add the verb. koto means thing, but here it is used to make a verb a noun so it will work with dekimasu.

1 日本語を話すことができます。 nihongo o hanasu koto ga dekimasu.
I can speak Japanese.

2 漢字を読むことができます。 kanji o yomu koto ga dekimasu.
I can read kanji.

Be creative and come up with things you can do!

more on this

-ing ている

This is a very important grammar point. It corresponds to the English "-ing" form

EAT > EATING (now) たべます > 食べています

CONSTRUCTION: て form + います or いる

Use this to describe things happening now.

1.今あなたに話しています。 ima anata ni hanashite imasu. (I am talking to you now.)
2.今ごはんを食べています。 ima gohan o tabete imasu. (I am eating rice (food) now.)
3.今スカイダイビングをしています。 ima sukaidaibingu o shite imasu. (I am skydiving now.)

To make a question just add か to the end.

あなたは勉強していますか。anata wa benkyou shite imasu ka. (Are you studying?)

more on this
ている as a habitual action

This これ・この

This and that. Actually Japanese also has one more. They also have "that over there" - but we will get at that later.

There are 2 words in Japanese that are translated as "this" in English:

これ kore - When "this" is not connected to a noun - hang on you will get it in a minute

これは何ですか?
kore wa nan desu ka?
What is this?

これはねこです。 kore wa neko desu. This is a cat.

To say "This is" or "is this" the kore will probably be followed by a は wa

この kono - When you put "this" before a noun, it changes to kono

このねこはポチですか?
kono neko wa pochi desu ka?
Is this cat, Pochi?.

いいえ。この犬はポチです。
iie kono inu wa pochi desu.
No. This dog is Pochi.

It may seem strange at first, but after a while This and That become second nature!

That それ・その

This and that. Now we are on the THAT part. So this THAT refers to objects near the listener (not the speaker)

それ sore - when "that" is not connected to a noun

それは何ですか?
sore wa nan desu ka?
What is that?

それはねこです。
sore wa neko desu.
That is a cat.

Begin to think of the words starting with K's as "this" and the S's as "that" words

その sono - When you put "that" before a noun, it changes to sono

そのねこはポチですか?
sono neko wa pochi desu ka?
Is that cat, Pochi?.

いいえ。そのたこはポチです。
iie sono tako wa pochi desu.
No. That octopus is Pochi.

This is used in the same way as kono

That over there あれ・あの

This and that. Now we are on the THAT OVER THERE part. So this THAT refers to objects not near the listener or the speaker.

あれ are - when "that" is not connected to a noun

あれは何ですか?
あれはなんですか?
are wa nan desu ka?
What is that over there?

あれは猫です。
あれはねこです。
are wa neko desu.
That over there is a cat.

And now recognize A's mean That over there

あの ano - When you put "that" before a noun, it changes to ano

あのねこはポチですか?
ano neko wa pochi desu ka?
Is that cat over there, Pochi?.

いいえ。あのくじらはポチです。
iie ano kujira wa pochi desu.
No. That whale over there is Pochi.

Again they ALL are used in the same way.

Continue to lesson 5 Go back and review lesson 3

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