Grammar page 5

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The fourth page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
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The fifth page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
[[Category:Grammar]]
[[Category:Grammar]]
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==~たほうがいい/~た方が良い==
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When giving advice this is useful. 
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CONSTRUCTION: ta form (#3) + ほう が いい hou ga ii
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休んだほうがいい。<br>
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yasunda hou ga ii.<br>
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It would be better to rest.
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聞いたほうがいい。<br>
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kiita hou ga ii.<br>
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It would be better to ask (someone).
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NOTE: The ta form is the past form. (But obviously no past meaning is intended here.) Observe that the English equivalent "It would be better" or  "You had better" gramatically speaking uses the past tense as well, altough it expresses no past meaning.
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==better / worse than より、のほうがいい/の方が良い==
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This has the same hou ga ii  as above.  But here we using it to compare things.  Also we will introduce yori (less than).
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~のほうがいい ~no hou ga ii (more than), <br>
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~より ~yori (less than)
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This is a little confusing if you think too much on this! But I suggest memorizing one or two examples and then you should be able to keep it straight.
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わたしはいぬより、ねこのほうが好き。<br>
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watashi wa inu yori, neko no hou ga suki.<br>
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I like dogs less than cats. (I like cats more than dogs.)
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You should spend some time studying the above example to understand how the ordering works.
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Notice in English we use either "less than" or "more than" and the meaning is understood by the order of "dogs" and "cats" BUT in Japanese this is also ok:
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わたしはねこのほうが、いぬより好き。<br>
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watashi wa neko no hou ga inu, yori suki
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==For example たとえば/例えば==
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Anytime you want to make an illustration or give an example this is the phrase to use.
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私は和食が好きです。<br>
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watashi wa washoku ga suki desu.<br>
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I like Japanese style food.
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たとえば、ごはんとみそ汁。<br>
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tatoeba, gohan to misoshiru.<br>
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For example, rice and miso soup.
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You can also ask someone this to get more concrete information.
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たとえば、何?<br>
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tatoeba, nani?<br>
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For example, what?
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[http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=17 more on power words]
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== and (then) そして/然して ==
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そして soshite - connecting phrases.  そして is generally used at the start of
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a sentence, and relates to the preceeding sentence.
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わたしは日本語がはなせます。そして、ドイツ語が読めます。<br>
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watashi wa nihongo ga hanasemasu. soshite, doitsugo ga yomemasu.<br>
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I can speak Japanese and I can read German.
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私は彼の友人です、そしていつまでもそうでしょう。<br>
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watashi wa kare no yuujin desu, soshite itsumademo sou deshou. <br>
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I am his friend and will remain so.
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そして soshite - inside sentences. In the following example it connects two sub-clauses of a sentence with an 'and' like construction.
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私たちは何をするか、そしてどこへ行くかについて話しました。  <br>
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watashitachi wa nani o suru ka, soshite doko e iku ka ni tsuite hanashimashita.<br>
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We discussed what to do and where to go.
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そして soshite - with lists.
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私達はゆうしょくのあと、うたい、おどり、そしておしゃべりをしました。 <br>
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watashitachi wa yuushoku no ato, utai, odori, soshite oshaberi o shimashita.<br>
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We sang, danced and chatted after dinner.
==How... どう==
==How... どう==
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うどんはどうでしょう? udon wa dou deshou?  How about some Udon?   
うどんはどうでしょう? udon wa dou deshou?  How about some Udon?   
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==said といいました==
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==said といいました/と言いました==
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To review the 3 types of verbs click [http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=13 here].
To review the 3 types of verbs click [http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=13 here].
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==Negative adjectives==
 
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we say `not red` to show an absence of that color in English. In Japanese as with the verbs, the adjective`s ending is modified with a negative ending. You will notice a great similarity with the verbal endings.
 
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With `i` adjectives the `i` changes to a `ku` before adding the `nai`...<br>
 
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そのりんごは赤くない。sono ringo wa akakunai. That apple isn`t red.
 
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`na` adjectives simply drop the `na` (which is really only used before nouns) and add `ja nai` or `ja arimasen` (or dewa nai & dewa arimasen)...<br>
 
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私は、きれいじゃない。watashi wa kirei ja nai. I am not pretty.
 
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To learn more about adjectives click [http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=8 here].
 
==Plan to 予定、つもり==
==Plan to 予定、つもり==
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あなたと結婚するつもり/予定です。anata to kekkon suru tsumori (or yotei) desu. I intend to marry you.
あなたと結婚するつもり/予定です。anata to kekkon suru tsumori (or yotei) desu. I intend to marry you.
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You can also use it with nouns by sticking a の before the tsumori and after adjectives. But for now concentrate on the verb usage.  
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You can also use it with nouns by sticking a の before the tsumori and after adjectives. But for now concentrate on the verb usage.
==Punctuation 。 、「 」==
==Punctuation 。 、「 」==
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==Should/Must はず==
 
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You should know はず. It is easy and useful, therefore you have no excuse :)
 
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Hazu shows an expectation that something should happen. In other words, you are pretty sure something is true. Let`s see how it works...
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==Particles Part 2==
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To add はず to any adjective just add it...<br>
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===から from / because / after doing===
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そのかばんは、高いはずです。<br>
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sono kaban wa, takai hazu desu.<br>
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That bag must be expensive. <br>
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[It is expected to be expensive]
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Just add it to the simple form of any verb<br>
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から ''kara'' can be from (a starting point in time or place)
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あなたは、ゴジラを知っているはずです。<br>
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anata wa, gojira o shitteiru hazu desu.<br>
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アメリカからきました。<br>
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You should/must know Godzilla.
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amerika kara kimashita. <br>
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(I) came from America.
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かいぎは8時からです。<br>
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kaigi wa hachiji kara desu.
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The meeting is from 8.
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から ''kara'' can also be used after the -て form of a verb to mean after some action has been performed.
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かおをあらってからあさめしを食べます。<br>
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kao o aratte kara asameshi o tabemasu.<br>
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After washing my face I eat breakfast.
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Last but not least から ''kara'' can be used after the plain form of a verb or adjective to mean _because_ (that verb/adjective).
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まずかったから食べませんでした。<br>
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mazukatta kara tabemasendeshita.<br>
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It tasted bad so I didn't eat it.<br>
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走ったからつかれています。<br>
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hashitte kara tsukareteimasu.<br>
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I ran so I'm tired.
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===なぜなら===
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なぜなら ''nazenara'' is used at the start of 'because' sentences, although it isn't essential.
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なぜなら + reason or excuse + kara
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なぜならはらがへったからです。<br>
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nazenara hara ga hetta kara desu.<br>
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Because, (I'm) starving!
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==Because II ので==
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===ので===
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We have looked at some becauses that mainly act as a preposition. ので comes at the end of the phrase.
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ので ''node'' is a 'because' that comes at the end of a phrase.
In English we start the phrase with `because` in Japanese you often say the reason first and then the because...
In English we start the phrase with `because` in Japanese you often say the reason first and then the because...
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Because I am still a student, I don`t have any money.
Because I am still a student, I don`t have any money.
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==Although のに==
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===のに===
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A close cousin to ので (above), is のに. It is often used to show disappointment in the current situation.
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* even though, although
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Just add it after an adjective...
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A close cousin to ので (above), is のに. Just add it after an plain verb or adjective
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一生厳命勉強したのに、テストを落ちた。<br>
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(the の in のに acts as a [[nominalizer]]).
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isshougenmei benkyou shita noni, tesuto o ochita.<br>
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Even though I studied really hard, I flunked the test.
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Using 何
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It has two main uses;
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This is a very useful add-on.
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1. To show disappointment.
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Use it as a counter:
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一生厳命勉強したのに、テストを落ちました。<br>
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isshougenmei benkyou shita noni, tesuto o ochimashita.<br>
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Even though I studied really hard, I flunked the test.
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{|border=1
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2. To show where the main verb of the sentence was applied to.
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|何人
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|nan nin
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how many people
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来るのは何人ですか。kuru no wa nan nin desu ka? - How many people are coming?
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|-
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|何年
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|nan nen
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how many years
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何年アメリカに住んでいましたか。 nan nen amerika ni sunde imashita ka? - How many years did you live in America?
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|何番
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|nan ban
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what number
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次は何番ですか。 tsugi wa nan ban desu ka? - What is the next number?
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|-
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|何度
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|nan do
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what`s the temperature
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温度は何度ですか。 ondo wa nando desu ka? - What is the temperature at?
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|-
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|何曜日
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|nan you bi
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what day of the week
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今日は何曜日ですか。 kyou wa nan youbi desu ka? - What is the day of the week?
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|何日
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|nan nichi
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which day
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パーティーは何日ですか。 pa-ti wa nan nichi desu ka. - What day is the party?
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|-
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|何個
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|nan ko
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how many pieces
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ジェリービーンを何個ほしいですか。 jeri-bi-n o nanko hoshii desu ka? - How many jelly beans do you want?
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|}
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===And the following are a few of the adverbial usages of 何===
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A typical example would be
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{|border=1
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|-
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|何か
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|nani ka
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something
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何か飲みたい。 nanika nomitai - I want something to drink
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|何でも
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|nan demo
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anything, whatever
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何でもいいです。 nandemo ii desu. - Anything is fine.
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|-
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|何と
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|nan to
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how...!
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何とすばらしい日。 nan to subarashii hi. - What a wonderful day!
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|-
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|何のため
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|nan no tame
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what for
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ここに来たのは、何のためですか。 koko ni kita no wa nan no tame desu ka? - Why did you come here? 
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|-
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|何となく
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|nantonaku
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somehow, in some way
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|-
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|何となく分かる。
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|nantonaku wakaru. - I somehow understand.
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----
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○○するのに時間がかかりました。<br>
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○○ suru no ni jikan ga kakarimashita.<br>
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It took time to do ○○.
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==Easy to... ~やすい==
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Now a real example...
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我々の目は暗闇に慣れるのに時間がかかります。<br>
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wareware no me wa an'yami ni nareru no ni jikan ga kakarimasu.<br>
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Our eyes take time to adjust to the darkness.
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It's easy to add "easy to" to verbs!  Consider the following verbs in the masu form:
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===が (part 2)===
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たべます tabe masu [to eat]>  たべやすい tabe yasui [easy to eat]
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Previously we dealt with the use of が as the subject particle.  However it can also be used to join two sentences like 'but'.
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Did you see that?  If you know the -masu form of the verb, you can easily drop the -masu and add a yasui.
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科学技術のおかげで私達の生活は楽ですが、環境も大切です。<br>
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kagakugijutsu no okagede watashitachi no seikatsu wa raku desu ga, kankyou mo taisetsu desu.<br>
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Our lives are easy thanks to technology but the environment is also important.
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わかります wakari masu [to understand] > わかりやすい wakari yasui [easy to understand]
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* が is primarily used in written/formal language
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けど, けれど etc are better in casual/normal spoken Japanese.
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==Hard to... ~にくい==
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* が is not a very strong 'but'.
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If "easy to" is easy to use (see above) then you would think that "hard to" would be hard to use.  Well, they had to go and make it easy. Usage is the same as -yasui (easy to)
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In other words it can be used like 'and' as well without the sense of contrast.
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たべます tabe masu [to eat] > たべにくい tabe nikui [hard to eat]
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* ですが, だが can be used at the start of sentences.
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If you know the -masu form of the verb, you can easily drop the -masu and add a nikui.
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彼女の手は小さいです。だがピアノが弾けないほど小さくはないです。<br>
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kanojo no te wa chiisai desu. daga piano ga hikenai hodo chiisaku wa nai desu.<br>
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Her hands are small, but not so small that she can't play the piano.
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わかります wakari masu [to understand] > わかりにくい wakari nikui [hard to understand]
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[[Category:Grammar]]
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 5|lesson 5]]'''
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 6|lesson 6]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 4|lesson 4]]'''

Current revision as of 16:40, 14 May 2010

The fifth page of the grammar lessons.

Contents

~たほうがいい/~た方が良い

When giving advice this is useful.

CONSTRUCTION: ta form (#3) + ほう が いい hou ga ii

休んだほうがいい。
yasunda hou ga ii.
It would be better to rest.

聞いたほうがいい。
kiita hou ga ii.
It would be better to ask (someone).

NOTE: The ta form is the past form. (But obviously no past meaning is intended here.) Observe that the English equivalent "It would be better" or "You had better" gramatically speaking uses the past tense as well, altough it expresses no past meaning.

better / worse than より、のほうがいい/の方が良い

This has the same hou ga ii as above. But here we using it to compare things. Also we will introduce yori (less than).

~のほうがいい ~no hou ga ii (more than),
~より ~yori (less than)

This is a little confusing if you think too much on this! But I suggest memorizing one or two examples and then you should be able to keep it straight.

わたしはいぬより、ねこのほうが好き。
watashi wa inu yori, neko no hou ga suki.
I like dogs less than cats. (I like cats more than dogs.)

You should spend some time studying the above example to understand how the ordering works.

Notice in English we use either "less than" or "more than" and the meaning is understood by the order of "dogs" and "cats" BUT in Japanese this is also ok:

わたしはねこのほうが、いぬより好き。
watashi wa neko no hou ga inu, yori suki

For example たとえば/例えば

Anytime you want to make an illustration or give an example this is the phrase to use.

私は和食が好きです。
watashi wa washoku ga suki desu.
I like Japanese style food.

たとえば、ごはんとみそ汁。
tatoeba, gohan to misoshiru.
For example, rice and miso soup.

You can also ask someone this to get more concrete information.

たとえば、何?
tatoeba, nani?
For example, what?

more on power words

and (then) そして/然して

そして soshite - connecting phrases. そして is generally used at the start of a sentence, and relates to the preceeding sentence.

わたしは日本語がはなせます。そして、ドイツ語が読めます。
watashi wa nihongo ga hanasemasu. soshite, doitsugo ga yomemasu.
I can speak Japanese and I can read German.

私は彼の友人です、そしていつまでもそうでしょう。
watashi wa kare no yuujin desu, soshite itsumademo sou deshou.
I am his friend and will remain so.

そして soshite - inside sentences. In the following example it connects two sub-clauses of a sentence with an 'and' like construction.

私たちは何をするか、そしてどこへ行くかについて話しました。
watashitachi wa nani o suru ka, soshite doko e iku ka ni tsuite hanashimashita.
We discussed what to do and where to go.

そして soshite - with lists.

私達はゆうしょくのあと、うたい、おどり、そしておしゃべりをしました。
watashitachi wa yuushoku no ato, utai, odori, soshite oshaberi o shimashita.
We sang, danced and chatted after dinner.

How... どう

Here is a very useful question word -- どう dou -- Let's look at ways of using dou.

どうですか。 dou desu ka? How is (it)? [Use this for asking about food, or anything that is being done now] どうでしたか。 dou deshita ka? How was (it)? [Use this to find out about past experiences - movie, last night's date, molded pizza you just ate...]

OTHER WAYS!

どうやって? dou yatte? How do you do it? [Ask this when you are not sure how to do something]
どうしましたか。 dou shimashita ka? What happened? [Ask this if someone looks sad or something has happened]

どうしよう dou shiyou What shall (I or we) do? [This is often used when you can't make a decision and want help... doushiyou, ne!]

どうするの?dou suru no? What will you do? [When you want to encourage someone to make a decision -- Well, what will you do?]

Isn't it? でしょう

If you want to state your opinion and then encourage someone to agree, use deshou.

フィリピンは暑いでしょう? firipin wa atsui deshou? The Philippines is hot, isn't it? 痛いでしょう? itai deshou? It hurts, doesn't it? [You see someone who has just slammed their head in the low doorway]

But usually でしょう is used to mean 'probably':

雨が降るでしょうね。 Ame ga furu deshou ne. It will probably rain, don't you think?

And another common usage is どうでしょう meaning 'how about...' or 'what do you think about'

うどんはどうでしょう? udon wa dou deshou? How about some Udon?

said といいました/と言いました

Meet the wonderful 'と to.' Mr. と can act as a quotation marker ("). Don't confuse this with the と that means 'and.' Very often if you are quoting someone or some source. This is best shown with examples:

「俺はスーパマン」と言いました。 ore wa su-paman to iimashita. He said, "I am Superman."

あの絵は十世紀に作ったと書いてあります。 ano e wa juu seiki ni tsukutta to kaite arimasu. The book says (it is written) that this painting was made in the 10th century.

It can also be used to mark sound effects of things or animals:
あの犬は「ワン」と言いました。 ano inu wa 'wan' to iimashita.

There are many other usages for 'to.' Paying attention to each usage will help you get a good grasp.

Negative verbs

It isn't a sin to be negative. Interesting I should say that... 'sin' sounds like 'sen' which marks the negative in Japanese in the -masu form. (Ok, so I set that one up...)

話せます hanasemasu - can speak becomes...
私は、日本語が話せません。watashi wa nihongo ga hanasemasen. (I) can`t speak Japanese.

分かります wakarimasu - understand becomes...
私は、英語が分かりません。watashi wa eigoga wakarimasen. (I) don`t understand English.

If you can make the -masu form, just drop the す and add the せん。

Making negative verb endings.

To make the negative in the plain, or simple, form by taking the basic stem and adding ない to it.

With the `ru` verbs you simply drop the る and add ない as in 忘れる wasureru (to forget)...
日本語を忘れない。nihongo o wasurenai. (I) don`t forget Japanese.

And for the `u` verbs we change the ending `u` sound to a `a` sound as in 書く kaku -> 書か...
手紙を書かない。tegami o kakanai. (I) don`t write letters. 

する and other irregular verbs

する is しない in the simple form and しません in the polite form
スカイダイビングをしません。sukaidaibingu o shimasen. (I) don`t do sky diving.
And 来る kuru is 来ない konai and 来ません kimasen in the formal...
ゴジラが来ない。gojira ga konai. Godzilla doesn`t come.

To review the 3 types of verbs click here.


Plan to 予定、つもり

If you plan on speaking Japanese these two words are very useful.予定 yotei and つもり tsumori

予定 yotei and つもり are very similar in meaning and usage. 予定 conveys more of a `schedule` feel whereas つもり is more of a `conviction of doing something. All you have to do is to stick either on the end of a verb (simple form)...

To add つもり or 予定 to any verb just find the simple form...
日本に行くつもり/予定です。nihon ni iku tsumori (or yotei) desu. I intend to go to Japan. [if you use tsumori, you `intend` to go one way or another; if you use yotei you already have a hard schedule set to leave at a certain time.]

Here is how you add it to a する verb
あなたと結婚するつもり/予定です。anata to kekkon suru tsumori (or yotei) desu. I intend to marry you.

You can also use it with nouns by sticking a の before the tsumori and after adjectives. But for now concentrate on the verb usage.

Punctuation 。 、「 」

Punctuation is in many ways similar to English. You have a comma, called a てんor とうてん(読点)and a period at the end of a sentence called a まる or くてん(句点).The Japanese quotation mark 「 」 is called かぎカッコ(鉤括弧).

Let`s quickly go over some common Punctuation thingies:

。 the まる acts just like our period by ending the sentence. It looks like a ball - maru
、 the てん acts like a comma. This is often found after は as in わたしは、あなたが好きです。 (I, like you)
「 and 」 These brackets(かぎカッコ) hold quotations and work like our "" marks.「ママ、早く来て」とその子は叫んだ。


Particles Part 2

から from / because / after doing

から kara can be from (a starting point in time or place)

アメリカからきました。
amerika kara kimashita.
(I) came from America.

かいぎは8時からです。
kaigi wa hachiji kara desu. The meeting is from 8.

から kara can also be used after the -て form of a verb to mean after some action has been performed.

かおをあらってからあさめしを食べます。
kao o aratte kara asameshi o tabemasu.
After washing my face I eat breakfast.

Last but not least から kara can be used after the plain form of a verb or adjective to mean _because_ (that verb/adjective).

まずかったから食べませんでした。
mazukatta kara tabemasendeshita.
It tasted bad so I didn't eat it.

走ったからつかれています。
hashitte kara tsukareteimasu.
I ran so I'm tired.

なぜなら

なぜなら nazenara is used at the start of 'because' sentences, although it isn't essential.

なぜなら + reason or excuse + kara

なぜならはらがへったからです。
nazenara hara ga hetta kara desu.
Because, (I'm) starving!

ので

ので node is a 'because' that comes at the end of a phrase.

In English we start the phrase with `because` in Japanese you often say the reason first and then the because...

Just add it after an adjective...
そのかばんは高いので、ずっと使うつもりです。
sono kaban wa takai node, zutto tsukau tsumori desu.
Since that bag was expensive, I plan on using it for a long time.

Just add it to the simple form of any verb
ゴジラが来るので、東京は怖いところです。
gojira ga kuru node, toukyou wa kowai tokoro desu.
Since Godzilla comes, Tokyo is a scary place.

After a noun or a -na adjective add a NA before NODE...
私はまだ学生なので、お金がない。
watashi wa mada gakusei na node, okane ga nai.
Because I am still a student, I don`t have any money.

のに

  • even though, although

A close cousin to ので (above), is のに. Just add it after an plain verb or adjective (the の in のに acts as a nominalizer).

It has two main uses;

1. To show disappointment.

一生厳命勉強したのに、テストを落ちました。
isshougenmei benkyou shita noni, tesuto o ochimashita.
Even though I studied really hard, I flunked the test.

2. To show where the main verb of the sentence was applied to.

A typical example would be

○○するのに時間がかかりました。
○○ suru no ni jikan ga kakarimashita.
It took time to do ○○.

Now a real example...

我々の目は暗闇に慣れるのに時間がかかります。
wareware no me wa an'yami ni nareru no ni jikan ga kakarimasu.
Our eyes take time to adjust to the darkness.

が (part 2)

Previously we dealt with the use of が as the subject particle. However it can also be used to join two sentences like 'but'.

科学技術のおかげで私達の生活は楽ですが、環境も大切です。
kagakugijutsu no okagede watashitachi no seikatsu wa raku desu ga, kankyou mo taisetsu desu.
Our lives are easy thanks to technology but the environment is also important.

  • が is primarily used in written/formal language

けど, けれど etc are better in casual/normal spoken Japanese.

  • が is not a very strong 'but'.

In other words it can be used like 'and' as well without the sense of contrast.

  • ですが, だが can be used at the start of sentences.

彼女の手は小さいです。だがピアノが弾けないほど小さくはないです。
kanojo no te wa chiisai desu. daga piano ga hikenai hodo chiisaku wa nai desu.
Her hands are small, but not so small that she can't play the piano.

Continue to lesson 6 Go back and review lesson 4

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