Grammar page 6

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  neru toki itsumo futon de nemasu. When I sleep, I always sleep on a futon.  
  neru toki itsumo futon de nemasu. When I sleep, I always sleep on a futon.  
   
   
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For more information on time related words, click [http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=23 here]  
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For more information on time related words, click [http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=23 here]
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==Using こと、もの==
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This is how you say 'thing'
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Koto - intangible things
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いい事はありません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good.
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大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing.
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昨日の事はすみませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing)
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Mono - tangible things
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その黒いものは猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat?
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おいしいものが食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good.
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One useful phrase using koto is:
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どういうこと?
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dou iu koto?
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What is the meaning of this?
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This phrase is used whenever the listener isn't sure of the motive of the speaker.
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==situation, case 場合 ==
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This is one that should be learned by useful examples
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非常の場合はボタンを押してください。 hijou no ba ai wa botan o oshite kudasai. In case of emergency push the button.
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その場合はどうすればいい? sono ba ai wa dou sureba ii? In that situation, what should I do?
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テストがあった場合、私は病気になります。 tesuto ga atta ba ai, watashi wa byouki ni narimasu. Should a test be given , I will get sick.
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==Etc... and... など、とか==
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Sometimes you have to say more than one thing. Whoever invented 'etc.' was a genius. Let's see how to do this in Japanese...
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First a few ways to list multiple items:
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や ya - and, and so forth
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ピーマンやほうれん草が嫌いです。 pi-man ya hourensou ga kirai desu. I don't like green peppers, spinach and the like.
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とか toka - or, and, and so forth
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熊のプーさんとかドラえもんとかキティちゃんが好きです。 kuma no pu-san toka doraemon toka kiti chan ga suki desu.
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I like things like Winnie the Pooh and Doraemon and Hello Kitty.
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And now for nado to wrap things up.
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食べ物の中ではピザとかフライドポテトなどが好きです。 tabemono no naka dewa piza toka furaido poteto nado ga suki desu. As for foods,
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I like things like pizza or french fries.
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==About くらい or ぐらい==
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About how much? About how many?
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Sometimes the く turns into a ぐ probably after harder consonants. お客様はどのくらい来ましたか? okyakusama wa dono kurai kimashita ka? About how many customers came?
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ええと、100人くらい来ました。 eeto, hyaku nin kurai kimashita. Let me see, About 100 people.
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You can use this with time:
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8時ぐらい hachi ji gurai - about 8 O'clock
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Or counting anything:
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2匹くらい ni hiki kurai - about 2 (animals)
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10冊ぐらい juu satsu gurai - about 10 books
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==How about ...? どう==
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To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).
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You can used it with or without the final 'desu ka' in conversation. 最近はどうですか? saikin wa dou desu ka? How's it going recently?
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コーヒーはどう? ko-hi- wa dou? How's the coffee? or it could mean How about some coffee?
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天気・#92;報はどう? tenki yohou wa dou? How's the weather forecast looking?
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Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)
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==しまった、ちゃった==
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This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example, 最後のクーキーを食べてしまった。 I unfortunately ate the last cookie. Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.
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The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb
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全部のお金を使ってしまいました。 zenbu no okane o tsukatte shimaimashita. Unfortunately, I spent all my money.
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私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta. Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese.
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Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau
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試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta. I flunked the test unfortunately.
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or in the present tense
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ケーキを全部食べちゃう。 ke-ki o zenbu tabechau. I will eat all the cake.
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An important point by Mukade in the forums:
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In the Kansai area, the use of ちゃった is limited to female speakers.
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I learned both in the classroom, of course, since they are standard dialect.
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But when I moved here to Osaka, people started asking me if I was gay, since I kept using ちゃった all the time.
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If I could help prevent someone else from having to go through the same "hard knocks" learning process that I did, it would make me very happy.
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So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine. 
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==Please do... ~てください==
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Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...
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add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb
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ゆっくり話してください。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly.
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もっと大人らしくしてください。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up.
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ここで右に曲がってください。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here.
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==Please give me... ~をください==
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Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."
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その本をください。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book.
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500円をください。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen.
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In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.
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==On, In, Above, Behind==
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A good knowledge of position particles will help glue everything together.
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===にni - on===
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机に本があります。 tsukue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on the desk.
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のうえに no ue ni - on top of
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机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.
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===のしたに no shita ni - under...===
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机のしたに本があります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.
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===の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...===
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机の後ろに本があります。 tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book behind the desk.
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 6|lesson 6]]'''
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Revision as of 13:02, 6 August 2006

The fifth page of the grammar lessons.

Contents

Looks like ~みたい

Looks like we made it - as Barry Manilow would say - at least we made it half way!

台風が 来る みたい。taifuu ga kuru mitai. It looks like a hurricane. [This could mean you are looking at storm clouds, OR someone told you a hurricane is coming and you are reporting that possibility]

And just stick it after a noun

この 景色は 夢 みたい。 kono keshiki wa yume mitai. This scenery looks like a dream. [Useful if visiting Mt. Fuji - or, alternatively, if you have bad dreams, a garbage heap...]

あの 人は 日本人 みたい。 ano hito WA nihonjin mitai. That person looks like he's [or she's] Japanese.


There is another usage of -mitai where it can mean 'try and see' when added to the て form of a verb: やってみたい yatte mitai - I'll give it a shot. 食べてみたい tabete mitai - I'll taste and see.

That is a bit different from the above, but it is also very useful!


I heard...; They say ~そう

While みたい can convey info you have heard as well as what you see, ~そう is mainly used for info that originated elsewhere. - I heard...

Construction: 1) simple verb + ~sou + desu/da

ゆきちゃんは 肉を 食べない そう だ。 yuki chan WA niku o tabenai sou DA I heard Yuki doesn't eat meat.


 

2) -i adjective + ~sou + desu/DA

田中さんの新しいパ・#92;コンは とても 高い そう です。 tanaka san no atarashii pasokon wa totemo takai sou desu. I heard Tanaka's new computer is very expensive. [This info could have come from Tanaka himself, or someone else]


Like, as... ~ように

Here is a useful tag which means 'just as...' or 'like this...'

Construction: 1) simple verb + ~you ni

私が言う ように して。 watashi ga iu you ni shite. Do as I say. Do as I say.


 

2) noun + ~ no you ni

あなた は 熊のプーさん のように かわいい です。 anata wa kuma no pu-san no you ni kawaii desu. You are as cute as Winnie the Pooh


like, as if, apparently らしい

This is similar to ~sou where the speaker is repeating info heard from another source. The only difference may be ~rashii may be based on more reliable information.

Construction: 1) simple verb + ~rashii 山田さん は 帰った らしい です。 yamada san wa kaetta rashii desu. It sounds like Mr. Yamada has come home.


 

2) noun + ~rashii

There are a few nouns with rashii that you can remember as a word in itself. This meaning is slighly different from the above verb construction. Instead of meaning info heard elsewhere, when added to a noun it means the speaker thinks something looks like something. Here are a few:

男らしい otokorashii - manly (like a man)
女らしい onnarashii - girly (but perhaps 女っぽい onnappoi is used more)
犬らしい inurashii - like a dog (substitute any animal here. This is useful when you see an animal at night and are not sure what it is, but it looks like..)
アメリカらしい amerikarashii - American-ish (substitute any country) 

Another similar construction with nouns is ~ppoi - as seen above with onnappoi. When added to nouns to mean 'looks like...' ~ppoi is the same as ~rashii


Let's... ~しましょう

Maybe this should be bumped up since it is so useful. Let`s start...

Construction: 1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou

Here are a few quick and useful examples:

行きましょう。 ikimashou. Let's go. 
遊びましょう。 asobimashou. Let's play. 
先生と話しましょう。 sensei to hanashimashou. Let's talk to the teacher. 
日本語を勉強しましょう。 nihongo o benkyou shimashou. Let's study Japanese. This example uses suru. Another example would be: 
スカイダイビングしましょう。 sukai daibingu shimashou. Let's go sky diving. 

This construction is very easy if you know the masu (formal) form of the verb. If you are a beginner, you probably want to stick with the ~masu form anyway.


Won't you...? ~ませんか?

Why don't we study Japanese grammar?

ok. Since we have the above construction (using a negative to suggest doing something) in English, this grammar point isn't too difficult to grasp

Construction: 1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou

どこか行きませんか。 dokoka ikimasen. 
Why don't we go already? [notice I have the English as 'we.' It could be 'you' if you are angry at the person and wish him to leave...] 

映画を見ませんか。 eiga o mimasen ka . Why don't we see a movie. 
何か飲みませんか。 nanika nomimasen ka . 
Wouldn't you like to drink something? [In this case you are asking someone individually if they would like something to drink. ] 

Power ender "ね"

This is used at the end of a sentence and contains a variety of meanings. We will look at it as a question tag.

As a question tag: don't you... isn't it...


あなたはにんじんが嫌いですね。 anata wa ninjin ga kirai desu ne. You don't like carrots, don't you? 
その映画はとてもいい映画だったね。 sono eiga wa totemo ii eiga datta ne. Don't you think that was a good movie? 
今日は暑いですね。 kyou wa atsui desu ne. Today is very hot, isn't it? 

If you want to use ne as a question tag, it helps to nod your head, or change the inflection to let the listener know you would like a response. It is usually used when the speaker feels fairly certain his listeners agree with what was said.

A very useful phrase for whenever something good happens is:

いいね。 ii ne. Isn't that great! 

When, that time とき

If you don't know when to say something, you will never say it!

Using とき toki - at the time when...

With a noun add a の

[Looking at a photo] 私は 学生 の ときには とても 若かったね。 watashi wa gakusei no toki ni wa totemo wakakatta ne. [looking at a photo] When I was a student, I was very young, wasn't I?


And with verbs...

simple past 
フロリダに 行った ときに これを 買いました。
furorida ni itta toki ni kore wo kaimashita. When I went to Florida, I bought this. 
non-past 
フロリダに 行く ときは おみやげを 買います。
furorida ni iku toki wa omiyage wo kaimasu. When I go to Florida, I will buy souvenirs. 
continuing
寝る とき いつも 布団で 寝ます。
neru toki itsumo futon de nemasu. When I sleep, I always sleep on a futon. 

For more information on time related words, click here

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