Grammar page 6

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The fifth page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
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The sixth page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
[[Category:Grammar]]
[[Category:Grammar]]
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==Looks like ~みたい==
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==Should/Must はず/べきです==
 +
You should know はず ''hazu''. It is easy and useful, therefore you have no excuse :) But do not confuse it with べきです, which is why we will treat it too. But first はず, whose kanji form is 筈
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Looks like we made it - as Barry Manilow would say - at least we made it half way!
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To add はず to any adjective just add it...<br>
 +
そのかばんは、高い筈です。<br>
 +
sono kaban wa, takai hazu desu.<br>
 +
That bag must be expensive. <br>
 +
(It is expected to be expensive)
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台風が 来る みたい。taifuu ga kuru mitai. It looks like a hurricane. [This could mean you are looking at storm clouds, OR someone told you a hurricane is coming and you are reporting that possibility] 
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Just add it to the simple form of any verb<br>
 +
貴方は、ゴジラを知っている筈です。<br>
 +
anata wa, gojira o shitteiru hazu desu.<br>
 +
You should/must know Godzilla.
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And just stick it after a noun
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はず can also be used as if it was a noun with の to modify other words. (Actually, it kind of IS a noun.)
-
この 景色は 夢 みたい。 kono keshiki wa yume mitai. This scenery looks like a dream. [Useful if visiting Mt. Fuji - or, alternatively, if you have bad dreams, a garbage heap...]
+
来る筈の弟はけっきょく来ませんでした。<br>
 +
kuru hazu no otouto wa kekkyoku kimasen deshita.<br>
 +
My brother, who I expected to come, didn't arrive in the end.
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あの 人は 日本人 みたい。 ano hito WA nihonjin mitai. That person looks like he's [or she's] Japanese.
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はず can also be used in the two useful constructions はずはない and はずがない.
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+
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There is another usage of -mitai where it can mean 'try and see' when added to the て form of a verb:
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Both mean "not expected" but はずはない is a plain statement of fact "I don't expect ..." while はずがない is an emphatic denial "There's no way that ...".
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やってみたい yatte mitai - I'll give it a shot.
+
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食べてみたい tabete mitai - I'll taste and see.
+
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That is a bit different from the above, but it is also very useful!
+
アイツが優勝する筈が無い!<br>
 +
aitsu ga yuushou suru hazu ga nai!<br>
 +
There's no way he'll win!
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----
 
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==I heard...; They say ~そう==
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Now on to べきです. This comes from the classical adverb 可し, which is a bit hard to understand. You will often only need it in the form of べきです, so don`t have to explain it here and now.
 +
Whereas はず expresses a logical expectation, べきです expresses a social expectation. Let's take a look:
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While みたい can convey info you have heard as well as what you see, ~そう is mainly used for info that originated elsewhere. - I heard...
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貴方は、ゴジラを知っている筈です。<br>
 +
"I think that "you knowing Godzilla" is indeed the case."
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Construction:
+
貴方は、ゴジラを知っているべきです。
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1) simple verb + ~sou + desu/da
+
"[As Godzilla is so well known] You should know Godzilla [as well]."
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ゆきちゃんは 肉を 食べない そう だ。 yuki chan WA niku o tabenai sou DA I heard Yuki doesn't eat meat.
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べきです is added to the simple form of a verb, with one "excpetion"
-
+
-
 
+
友達の会話の代わりに勉強すべきです。<br>
 +
tomodachi no kaiwa no kawari ni, benkyou subeki desu.<br>
 +
Instead of talking do friends, you had better study.
-
2) -i adjective + ~sou + desu/DA
+
Historically, べきです is added to the no longer existing verb form 終止形 (shuushikei). Today you just add it to the simple form of a verb. Only suru still uses this classical formation. And the 終止形 of  する happens to be す.
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田中さんの新しいパ・#92;コンは とても 高い そう です。 tanaka san no atarashii pasokon wa totemo takai sou desu. I heard Tanaka's new computer is very expensive. [This info could have come from Tanaka himself, or someone else]
+
==Easy to... ~やすい==
-
----
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やすい is an auxillary adjective.  Auxillary because it attaches to verbs.  Adjective so it behaves and conjugates like an i-adjective.
-
==Like, as... ~ように==
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It's easy to add "easy to" to verbs!  Consider the following verbs in the masu form:
 +
たべます tabe masu [to eat]>  たべやすい tabe yasui [easy to eat]
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Here is a useful tag which means 'just as...' or 'like this...'
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Did you see that?  If you know the -masu form of the verb, you can easily drop the -masu and add a yasui.
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Construction:
+
わかります wakari masu [to understand] > わかりやすい wakari yasui [easy to understand]
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1) simple verb + ~you ni
+
-
私が言う ように して。 watashi ga iu you ni shite. Do as I say. Do as I say.
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Some examples showing how to use ~やすい in sentences.  It behaves just like an ordinary i-adjective so you can use it before nouns.
-
+
-
 
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これは分かりやすい本です。<br>
 +
kore wa wakariyasui hon desu.<br>
 +
This is an easy-to-understand book.
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2) noun + ~ no you ni
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It also conjugates like a normal i-adjective.
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あなた は 熊のプーさん のように かわいい です。 anata wa kuma no pu-san no you ni kawaii desu. You are as cute as Winnie the Pooh
+
昼飯は食べやすかったです。<br>
 +
hirumeshi wa tabeyasukatta desu.<br>
 +
Lunch was easy to eat.
-
----
+
==Hard to... ~にくい==
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==like, as if, apparently らしい==
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If "easy to" is easy to use (see above) then you would think that "hard to" would be hard to use.  Well, they had to go and make it easy.  Usage is the same as -yasui (easy to)
 +
たべます tabe masu [to eat] > たべにくい tabe nikui [hard to eat]
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This is similar to ~sou where the speaker is repeating info heard from another source. The only difference may be ~rashii may be based on more reliable information.
+
If you know the -masu form of the verb, you can easily drop the -masu and add a nikui.
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Construction:
+
わかります wakari masu [to understand] > わかりにくい wakari nikui [hard to understand]
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1) simple verb + ~rashii 山田さん は 帰った らしい です。 yamada san wa kaetta rashii desu. It sounds like Mr. Yamada has come home.
+
-
+
-
 
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==Looks like ~みたい==
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2) noun + ~rashii
+
Looks like we made it - as Barry Manilow would say - at least we made it half way!
-
There are a few nouns with rashii that you can remember as a word in itself. This meaning is slighly different from the above verb construction. Instead of meaning info heard elsewhere, when added to a noun it means the speaker thinks something looks like something. Here are a few:
+
台風が来るみたい。taifuu ga kuru mitai.<br>
 +
It looks like a hurricane. <br>
-
男らしい otokorashii - manly (like a man)
+
[This could mean you are looking at storm clouds, OR someone told you a hurricane is coming and you are reporting that possibility]  
-
女らしい onnarashii - girly (but perhaps 女っぽい onnappoi is used more)
+
-
犬らしい inurashii - like a dog (substitute any animal here. This is useful when you see an animal at night and are not sure what it is, but it looks like..)
+
-
アメリカらしい amerikarashii - American-ish (substitute any country)
+
-
   
+
-
Another similar construction with nouns is ~ppoi - as seen above with onnappoi. When added to nouns to mean 'looks like...' ~ppoi is the same as ~rashii
+
And just stick it after a noun
-
----
+
この景色は夢みたい。 kono keshiki wa yume mitai. <br>
 +
This scenery looks like a dream. <br>
-
==Let's... ~しましょう==
+
[Useful if visiting Mt. Fuji - or, alternatively, if you have bad dreams, a garbage heap...] <br>
 +
あの人は日本人みたい。 ano hito WA nihonjin mitai.<br>
 +
That person looks like he's [or she's] Japanese. <br>
 +
There is another usage of -mitai where it can mean 'try and see' when added to the て form of a verb:<br>
 +
やってみたい yatte mitai - I'll give it a shot.<br>
 +
食べてみたい tabete mitai - I'll taste and see.<br>
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Maybe this should be bumped up since it is so useful. Let`s start...
+
That is a bit different from the above, but it is also very useful! <br>
 +
てみる + [http://thejapanesepage.com/w/index.php?title=Grammar_page_3#Want_to_do.7E_.EF.BD.9E.E3.81.9F.E3.81.84 たい] = てみたい
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Construction:
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See also [[Conjecture]].
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1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou
+
-
Here are a few quick and useful examples:
+
==I heard...; They say ~そう==
-
行きましょう。 ikimashou. Let's go.  
+
While みたい can convey info you have heard as well as what you see, ~そう is mainly used for info that originated elsewhere. - I heard...<br>
-
遊びましょう。 asobimashou. Let's play.
+
Construction: <br>
 +
1) simple verb + ~sou + desu/da <br>
-
先生と話しましょう。 sensei to hanashimashou. Let's talk to the teacher.  
+
ゆきちゃんは 肉を 食べない そう だ。 yuki chan WA niku o tabenai sou DA <br>
 +
I heard Yuki doesn't eat meat. <br>
-
日本語を勉強しましょう。 nihongo o benkyou shimashou. Let's study Japanese. This example uses suru. Another example would be:
+
2) -i adjective + ~sou + desu/DA <br>
-
スカイダイビングしましょう。 sukai daibingu shimashou. Let's go sky diving.  
+
田中さんの新しいパソコンは高かったそうです。 tanaka san no atarashii pasokon wa takatta sou desu. <br>
-
+
I heard Tanaka's new computer was expensive. [This info could have come from Tanaka himself, or someone else]<br>
-
This construction is very easy if you know the masu (formal) form of the verb. If you are a beginner, you probably want to stick with the ~masu form anyway.  
+
==Like, as... ~ように==
-
----
+
Here is a useful tag which means 'just as...' or 'like this...' <br>
-
==Won't you...? ~ませんか?==
+
Construction: <br>
-
 
+
1) simple verb + ~you ni<br>
-
Why don't we study Japanese grammar?
+
-
 
+
-
ok. Since we have the above construction (using a negative to suggest doing something) in English, this grammar point isn't too difficult to grasp
+
-
 
+
-
Construction:  
+
-
1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou
+
-
どこか行きませんか。 dokoka ikimasen.  
+
私が言うようにして。 watashi ga iu you ni shite.  
-
Why don't we go already? [notice I have the English as 'we.' It could be 'you' if you are angry at the person and wish him to leave...]
+
Do as I say.<br>
   
   
-
映画を見ませんか。 eiga o mimasen ka . Why don't we see a movie.
+
2) noun + ~ no you ni <br>
-
何か飲みませんか。 nanika nomimasen ka .  
+
あなたは熊のプーさんのようにかわいいです。 anata wa kuma no pu-san no you ni kawaii desu.<br>
-
Wouldn't you like to drink something? [In this case you are asking someone individually if they would like something to drink. ]
+
You are as cute as Winnie the Pooh.<br>
-
----
+
==like, as if, apparently らしい==
-
==Power ender "ね"==
+
This is similar to ~sou where the speaker is repeating info heard from another source. The only difference may be ~rashii may be based on more reliable information.
-
This is used at the end of a sentence and contains a variety of meanings. We will look at it as a question tag.  
+
Construction: <br>
 +
1) simple verb + ~rashii 山田さんは帰ったらしいです。 yamada san wa kaetta rashii desu. <br>
 +
It sounds like Mr. Yamada has come home. <br>
-
As a question tag: don't you... isn't it...
+
2) noun + ~rashii <br<
 +
There are a few nouns with rashii that you can remember as a word in itself. This meaning is slighly different from the above verb construction. Instead of meaning info heard elsewhere, when added to a noun it means the speaker thinks something looks like something. Here are a few:
-
あなたはにんじんが嫌いですね。 anata wa ninjin ga kirai desu ne. You don't like carrots, don't you?
+
男らしい otokorashii - manly (like a man)<br>
-
その映画はとてもいい映画だったね。 sono eiga wa totemo ii eiga datta ne. Don't you think that was a good movie?
+
女らしい onnarashii - girly (but perhaps 女っぽい onnappoi is used more)<br>
-
今日は暑いですね。 kyou wa atsui desu ne. Today is very hot, isn't it?
+
犬らしい inurashii - like a dog (substitute any animal here. This is useful when you see an animal at night and are not sure what it is, but it looks like..)<br>
-
+
アメリカらしい amerikarashii - American-ish (substitute any country)
-
If you want to use ne as a question tag, it helps to nod your head, or change the inflection to let the listener know you would like a response. It is usually used when the speaker feels fairly certain his listeners agree with what was said.
+
Another similar construction with nouns is ~ppoi - as seen above with onnappoi. When added to nouns to mean 'looks like...' ~ppoi is the same as ~rashii <br>
-
A very useful phrase for whenever something good happens is:
+
==Must do なければなりません==
-
  いいね。 ii ne. Isn't that great!
+
This is a mouthful! But it is so useful. Learn it well
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----
+
TO MAKE IT:  plain negative form - i +  ければ なりません kereba narimasen
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==When, that time とき==
+
ピーマンを食べなければなりません。 [Would be 食べない for the plain negative form ]<br>
 +
pi-man o tabenakereba narimasen.<br>
 +
(I) must eat green peppers.  (Many Japanese children don't like green peppers)
 +
Say that 5 times fast with your mouth full!
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If you don't know when to say something, you will never say it!
+
Perhaps the most useful usage is:
-
Using とき toki - at the time when...
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~しなければなりません<br>
 +
The し shi is from suru (to do)
-
With a noun add a の
+
勉強しなければなりません。<br>
 +
benkyou shinakereba narimasen.<br>
 +
(I) must (have to) study.
-
[Looking at a photo] 私は 学生 の ときには とても 若かったね。
+
しなければなりません。<br>
-
watashi wa gakusei no toki ni wa totemo wakakatta ne. [looking at a photo] When I was a student, I was very young, wasn't I?
+
shinakereba narimasen.<br>
-
+
(I) must (have to) do (it).
-
And with verbs...
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==Let's... ~しましょう==
-
simple past
+
Construction:
-
フロリダに 行った ときに これを 買いました。
+
1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou
-
furorida ni itta toki ni kore wo kaimashita. When I went to Florida, I bought this.
+
-
non-past
+
Here are a few quick and useful examples:
-
フロリダに 行く ときは おみやげを 買います。
+
-
furorida ni iku toki wa omiyage wo kaimasu. When I go to Florida, I will buy souvenirs.
+
-
continuing
+
行きましょう。 ikimashou. Let's go.  
-
寝る とき いつも 布団で 寝ます。
+
-
neru toki itsumo futon de nemasu. When I sleep, I always sleep on a futon.  
+
-
+
-
For more information on time related words, click [http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=23 here]
+
-
----
+
遊びましょう。 asobimashou. Let's play.
-
==Using こと、もの==
+
先生と話しましょう。 sensei to hanashimashou. Let's talk to the teacher.
 +
日本語を勉強しましょう。 nihongo o benkyou shimashou. Let's study Japanese. This example uses suru. Another example would be:
 +
スカイダイビングしましょう。 sukai daibingu shimashou. Let's go sky diving.
-
This is how you say 'thing'
+
This construction is very easy if you know the masu (formal) form of the verb. If you are a beginner, you probably want to stick with the ~masu form anyway.
-
Koto - intangible things
+
==Won't you...? ~ませんか?==
-
いい事はありません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good.
+
Why don't we study Japanese grammar?
-
大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing.  
+
ok. Since we have the above construction (using a negative to suggest doing something) in English, this grammar point isn't too difficult to grasp
-
昨日の事はすみませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing)
+
Construction:
-
+
1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou
-
Mono - tangible things
+
どこか行きませんか。 dokoka ikimasen. <br>
-
 
+
Why don't we go already? [notice I have the English as 'we.' It could be 'you' if you are angry at the person and wish him to leave...]
-
その黒いものは猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat?
+
-
 
+
-
おいしいものが食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good.  
+
   
   
 +
映画を見ませんか。 eiga o mimasen ka. Why don't we see a movie.
-
One useful phrase using koto is:
+
何か飲みませんか。 nanika nomimasen ka. <br>
 +
Wouldn't you like to drink something? [In this case you are asking someone individually if they would like something to drink.]
-
どういうこと?
+
==Power ender "ね"==
-
dou iu koto?
+
-
What is the meaning of this?
+
-
This phrase is used whenever the listener isn't sure of the motive of the speaker.  
+
This is used at the end of a sentence and contains a variety of meanings. We will look at it as a question tag.  
-
----
+
As a question tag: don't you... isn't it...
-
==situation, case 場合 ==
+
あなたはにんじんが嫌いですね。 anata wa ninjin ga kirai desu ne. You don't like carrots, don't you?
 +
その映画はとてもいい映画だったね。 sono eiga wa totemo ii eiga datta ne. Don't you think that was a good movie?
 +
今日は暑いですね。 kyou wa atsui desu ne. Today is very hot, isn't it?
 +
If you want to use ne as a question tag, it helps to nod your head, or change the inflection to let the listener know you would like a response. It is usually used when the speaker feels fairly certain his listeners agree with what was said.
-
This is one that should be learned by useful examples
+
A very useful phrase for whenever something good happens is:
-
非常の場合はボタンを押してください。 hijou no ba ai wa botan o oshite kudasai. In case of emergency push the button.  
+
いいね。 ii ne. Isn't that great!
-
その場合はどうすればいい? sono ba ai wa dou sureba ii? In that situation, what should I do?
+
==When, that time とき==
-
テストがあった場合、私は病気になります。 tesuto ga atta ba ai, watashi wa byouki ni narimasu. Should a test be given , I will get sick.
+
If you don't know when to say something, you will never say it!
-
----
+
Using とき toki - at the time when...
-
==Etc... and... など、とか==
+
With a noun add a の
 +
[Looking at a photo] 私は学生のときにはとても若かったね。<br>
 +
watashi wa gakusei no toki ni wa totemo wakakatta ne. <br>
 +
[looking at a photo] When I was a student, I was very young, wasn't I?
 +
And with verbs...
-
Sometimes you have to say more than one thing. Whoever invented 'etc.' was a genius. Let's see how to do this in Japanese...
+
simple past <br>
 +
フロリダに行ったときにこれを買いました。<br>
 +
furorida ni itta toki ni kore wo kaimashita. <br>
 +
When I went to Florida, I bought this.  
-
First a few ways to list multiple items:
+
non-past <br>
 +
フロリダに行くときはおみやげを買います。<br>
 +
furorida ni iku toki wa omiyage wo kaimasu. <br>
 +
When I go to Florida, I will buy souvenirs.
-
や ya - and, and so forth
+
continuing<br>
-
ピーマンやほうれん草が嫌いです。 pi-man ya hourensou ga kirai desu. I don't like green peppers, spinach and the like.
+
寝るときいつも布団で寝ます。<br>
-
 
+
neru toki itsumo futon de nemasu. <br>
-
とか toka - or, and, and so forth
+
When I sleep, I always sleep on a futon.  
-
熊のプーさんとかドラえもんとかキティちゃんが好きです。 kuma no pu-san toka doraemon toka kiti chan ga suki desu.
+
-
I like things like Winnie the Pooh and Doraemon and Hello Kitty.  
+
   
   
-
And now for nado to wrap things up.
+
For more information on time related words, click [http://thejapanesepage.com/readarticle.php?article_id=23 here]
-
食べ物の中ではピザとかフライドポテトなどが好きです。 tabemono no naka dewa piza toka furaido poteto nado ga suki desu. As for foods,
+
==When I was ... ころ / ごろ==
-
I like things like pizza or french fries.  
+
-
----
+
This is used very simiarly to とき
-
==About くらい or ぐらい==
+
[Looking at a photo] 私は学生のころにはとても若かったね。<br>
 +
watashi wa gakusei no koro ni wa totemo wakakatta ne. <br>
 +
[looking at a photo] When I was a student, I was very young, wasn't I?
-
About how much? About how many?
+
However it is generally used for larger stretches of time, further in the past.
-
Sometimes the く turns into a ぐ probably after harder consonants. お客様はどのくらい来ましたか? okyakusama wa dono kurai kimashita ka? About how many customers came?
+
For events of short duration とき is better.
-
ええと、100人くらい来ました。 eeto, hyaku nin kurai kimashita. Let me see, About 100 people.  
+
事故の(とき ○ / ころ ×)、なにが起こったかわかりませんでした。<br>
 +
jiko no (toki ○ / koro ×), nani ga okotta ka wakarimasen deshita<br>
 +
At the time of the accident, I didn't know what had happened.
-
You can use this with time:
+
ころ is used, like とき, directly after verbs or adjectives but with a の ''no'' after nouns.<br>
-
8時ぐらい hachi ji gurai - about 8 O'clock
+
子供のころ kodomo no koro = when I was a child<br>
 +
若かったころ wakakatta koro = when I was young
-
Or counting anything:
+
===Related words===
-
2匹くらい ni hiki kurai - about 2 (animals)
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10冊ぐらい juu satsu gurai - about 10 books
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一頃 【ひところ】 (n-adv,n-t) once; some time ago<br>
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先頃; 先ごろ 【さきごろ】 (n-adv,n-t) recently; the other day; (P)<br>
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頃合; 頃合い 【ころあい】 (n) (1) suitable time; good time; (2) propriety; moderation<br>
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日ごろ; 日頃 【ひごろ】 (n-adv,n-t) normally; habitually; (P)<br>
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近頃(P); 近ごろ 【ちかごろ】 (n-adv,n-t) lately; recently; nowadays; (P)<br>
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この頃(P); 此の頃 【このごろ】 (n-adv,n-t) recently; nowadays; these days; (P)<br>
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年頃 【としごろ】 (adv,n) age; marriageable age; age of puberty; adolescence; for some years; (P)
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==How about ...? どう==
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[[Category:Grammar]]
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To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).
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You can used it with or without the final 'desu ka' in conversation. 最近はどうですか? saikin wa dou desu ka? How's it going recently?
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コーヒーはどう? ko-hi- wa dou? How's the coffee? or it could mean How about some coffee?
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天気・#92;報はどう? tenki yohou wa dou? How's the weather forecast looking?
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Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)
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==しまった、ちゃった==
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This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example, 最後のクーキーを食べてしまった。 I unfortunately ate the last cookie. Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.
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The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb
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全部のお金を使ってしまいました。 zenbu no okane o tsukatte shimaimashita. Unfortunately, I spent all my money.
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私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta. Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese.
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Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau
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試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta. I flunked the test unfortunately.
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or in the present tense
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ケーキを全部食べちゃう。 ke-ki o zenbu tabechau. I will eat all the cake.
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An important point by Mukade in the forums:
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In the Kansai area, the use of ちゃった is limited to female speakers.
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I learned both in the classroom, of course, since they are standard dialect.
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But when I moved here to Osaka, people started asking me if I was gay, since I kept using ちゃった all the time.
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If I could help prevent someone else from having to go through the same "hard knocks" learning process that I did, it would make me very happy.
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So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine. 
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==Please do... ~てください==
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Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...
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add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb
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ゆっくり話してください。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly.
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もっと大人らしくしてください。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up.
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ここで右に曲がってください。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here.
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==Please give me... ~をください==
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Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."
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その本をください。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book.
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500円をください。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen.
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In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.
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==On, In, Above, Behind==
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A good knowledge of position particles will help glue everything together.
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===にni - on===
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机に本があります。 tsukue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on the desk.
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のうえに no ue ni - on top of
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机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.
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===のしたに no shita ni - under...===
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机のしたに本があります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.
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===の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...===
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机の後ろに本があります。 tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book behind the desk.
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 6|lesson 6]]'''
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 7|lesson 7]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 5|lesson 5]]'''

Current revision as of 16:18, 14 May 2010

The sixth page of the grammar lessons.

Contents

Should/Must はず/べきです

You should know はず hazu. It is easy and useful, therefore you have no excuse :) But do not confuse it with べきです, which is why we will treat it too. But first はず, whose kanji form is 筈

To add はず to any adjective just add it...
そのかばんは、高い筈です。
sono kaban wa, takai hazu desu.
That bag must be expensive.
(It is expected to be expensive)

Just add it to the simple form of any verb
貴方は、ゴジラを知っている筈です。
anata wa, gojira o shitteiru hazu desu.
You should/must know Godzilla.

はず can also be used as if it was a noun with の to modify other words. (Actually, it kind of IS a noun.)

来る筈の弟はけっきょく来ませんでした。
kuru hazu no otouto wa kekkyoku kimasen deshita.
My brother, who I expected to come, didn't arrive in the end.

はず can also be used in the two useful constructions はずはない and はずがない.

Both mean "not expected" but はずはない is a plain statement of fact "I don't expect ..." while はずがない is an emphatic denial "There's no way that ...".

アイツが優勝する筈が無い!
aitsu ga yuushou suru hazu ga nai!
There's no way he'll win!


Now on to べきです. This comes from the classical adverb 可し, which is a bit hard to understand. You will often only need it in the form of べきです, so don`t have to explain it here and now.

Whereas はず expresses a logical expectation, べきです expresses a social expectation. Let's take a look:

貴方は、ゴジラを知っている筈です。
"I think that "you knowing Godzilla" is indeed the case."
貴方は、ゴジラを知っているべきです。 
"[As Godzilla is so well known] You should know Godzilla [as well]." 

べきです is added to the simple form of a verb, with one "excpetion"

友達の会話の代わりに勉強すべきです。
tomodachi no kaiwa no kawari ni, benkyou subeki desu.
Instead of talking do friends, you had better study.

Historically, べきです is added to the no longer existing verb form 終止形 (shuushikei). Today you just add it to the simple form of a verb. Only suru still uses this classical formation. And the 終止形 of する happens to be す.

Easy to... ~やすい

やすい is an auxillary adjective. Auxillary because it attaches to verbs. Adjective so it behaves and conjugates like an i-adjective.

It's easy to add "easy to" to verbs! Consider the following verbs in the masu form:

たべます tabe masu [to eat]>  たべやすい tabe yasui [easy to eat]

Did you see that? If you know the -masu form of the verb, you can easily drop the -masu and add a yasui.

わかります wakari masu [to understand] > わかりやすい wakari yasui [easy to understand]

Some examples showing how to use ~やすい in sentences. It behaves just like an ordinary i-adjective so you can use it before nouns.

これは分かりやすい本です。
kore wa wakariyasui hon desu.
This is an easy-to-understand book.

It also conjugates like a normal i-adjective.

昼飯は食べやすかったです。
hirumeshi wa tabeyasukatta desu.
Lunch was easy to eat.

Hard to... ~にくい

If "easy to" is easy to use (see above) then you would think that "hard to" would be hard to use. Well, they had to go and make it easy. Usage is the same as -yasui (easy to)

たべます tabe masu [to eat] > たべにくい tabe nikui [hard to eat]

If you know the -masu form of the verb, you can easily drop the -masu and add a nikui.

わかります wakari masu [to understand] > わかりにくい wakari nikui [hard to understand]

Looks like ~みたい

Looks like we made it - as Barry Manilow would say - at least we made it half way!

台風が来るみたい。taifuu ga kuru mitai.
It looks like a hurricane.

[This could mean you are looking at storm clouds, OR someone told you a hurricane is coming and you are reporting that possibility]

And just stick it after a noun

この景色は夢みたい。 kono keshiki wa yume mitai.
This scenery looks like a dream.

[Useful if visiting Mt. Fuji - or, alternatively, if you have bad dreams, a garbage heap...]

あの人は日本人みたい。 ano hito WA nihonjin mitai.
That person looks like he's [or she's] Japanese.

There is another usage of -mitai where it can mean 'try and see' when added to the て form of a verb:
やってみたい yatte mitai - I'll give it a shot.
食べてみたい tabete mitai - I'll taste and see.

That is a bit different from the above, but it is also very useful!
てみる + たい = てみたい

See also Conjecture.

I heard...; They say ~そう

While みたい can convey info you have heard as well as what you see, ~そう is mainly used for info that originated elsewhere. - I heard...

Construction:
1) simple verb + ~sou + desu/da

ゆきちゃんは 肉を 食べない そう だ。 yuki chan WA niku o tabenai sou DA
I heard Yuki doesn't eat meat.

2) -i adjective + ~sou + desu/DA

田中さんの新しいパソコンは高かったそうです。 tanaka san no atarashii pasokon wa takatta sou desu.
I heard Tanaka's new computer was expensive. [This info could have come from Tanaka himself, or someone else]

Like, as... ~ように

Here is a useful tag which means 'just as...' or 'like this...'

Construction:
1) simple verb + ~you ni

私が言うようにして。 watashi ga iu you ni shite. Do as I say.

2) noun + ~ no you ni

あなたは熊のプーさんのようにかわいいです。 anata wa kuma no pu-san no you ni kawaii desu.
You are as cute as Winnie the Pooh.

like, as if, apparently らしい

This is similar to ~sou where the speaker is repeating info heard from another source. The only difference may be ~rashii may be based on more reliable information.

Construction:
1) simple verb + ~rashii 山田さんは帰ったらしいです。 yamada san wa kaetta rashii desu.
It sounds like Mr. Yamada has come home.

2) noun + ~rashii <br<

There are a few nouns with rashii that you can remember as a word in itself. This meaning is slighly different from the above verb construction. Instead of meaning info heard elsewhere, when added to a noun it means the speaker thinks something looks like something. Here are a few:

男らしい otokorashii - manly (like a man)
女らしい onnarashii - girly (but perhaps 女っぽい onnappoi is used more)
犬らしい inurashii - like a dog (substitute any animal here. This is useful when you see an animal at night and are not sure what it is, but it looks like..)
アメリカらしい amerikarashii - American-ish (substitute any country)

Another similar construction with nouns is ~ppoi - as seen above with onnappoi. When added to nouns to mean 'looks like...' ~ppoi is the same as ~rashii

Must do なければなりません

This is a mouthful! But it is so useful. Learn it well

TO MAKE IT: plain negative form - i +  ければ なりません kereba narimasen

ピーマンを食べなければなりません。 [Would be 食べない for the plain negative form ]
pi-man o tabenakereba narimasen.
(I) must eat green peppers. (Many Japanese children don't like green peppers)

Say that 5 times fast with your mouth full!

Perhaps the most useful usage is:

~しなければなりません
The し shi is from suru (to do)

勉強しなければなりません。
benkyou shinakereba narimasen.
(I) must (have to) study.

しなければなりません。
shinakereba narimasen.
(I) must (have to) do (it).

Let's... ~しましょう

Construction: 1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou

Here are a few quick and useful examples:

行きましょう。 ikimashou. Let's go.

遊びましょう。 asobimashou. Let's play.

先生と話しましょう。 sensei to hanashimashou. Let's talk to the teacher.

日本語を勉強しましょう。 nihongo o benkyou shimashou. Let's study Japanese. This example uses suru. Another example would be:

スカイダイビングしましょう。 sukai daibingu shimashou. Let's go sky diving.

This construction is very easy if you know the masu (formal) form of the verb. If you are a beginner, you probably want to stick with the ~masu form anyway.

Won't you...? ~ませんか?

Why don't we study Japanese grammar?

ok. Since we have the above construction (using a negative to suggest doing something) in English, this grammar point isn't too difficult to grasp

Construction: 1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou

どこか行きませんか。 dokoka ikimasen.
Why don't we go already? [notice I have the English as 'we.' It could be 'you' if you are angry at the person and wish him to leave...]

映画を見ませんか。 eiga o mimasen ka. Why don't we see a movie.

何か飲みませんか。 nanika nomimasen ka.
Wouldn't you like to drink something? [In this case you are asking someone individually if they would like something to drink.]

Power ender "ね"

This is used at the end of a sentence and contains a variety of meanings. We will look at it as a question tag.

As a question tag: don't you... isn't it...

あなたはにんじんが嫌いですね。 anata wa ninjin ga kirai desu ne. You don't like carrots, don't you? その映画はとてもいい映画だったね。 sono eiga wa totemo ii eiga datta ne. Don't you think that was a good movie? 今日は暑いですね。 kyou wa atsui desu ne. Today is very hot, isn't it?

If you want to use ne as a question tag, it helps to nod your head, or change the inflection to let the listener know you would like a response. It is usually used when the speaker feels fairly certain his listeners agree with what was said.

A very useful phrase for whenever something good happens is:

いいね。 ii ne. Isn't that great!

When, that time とき

If you don't know when to say something, you will never say it!

Using とき toki - at the time when...

With a noun add a の

[Looking at a photo] 私は学生のときにはとても若かったね。
watashi wa gakusei no toki ni wa totemo wakakatta ne.
[looking at a photo] When I was a student, I was very young, wasn't I?

And with verbs...

simple past
フロリダに行ったときにこれを買いました。
furorida ni itta toki ni kore wo kaimashita.
When I went to Florida, I bought this.

non-past
フロリダに行くときはおみやげを買います。
furorida ni iku toki wa omiyage wo kaimasu.
When I go to Florida, I will buy souvenirs.

continuing
寝るときいつも布団で寝ます。
neru toki itsumo futon de nemasu.
When I sleep, I always sleep on a futon.

For more information on time related words, click here

When I was ... ころ / ごろ

This is used very simiarly to とき

[Looking at a photo] 私は学生のころにはとても若かったね。
watashi wa gakusei no koro ni wa totemo wakakatta ne.
[looking at a photo] When I was a student, I was very young, wasn't I?

However it is generally used for larger stretches of time, further in the past.

For events of short duration とき is better.

事故の(とき ○ / ころ ×)、なにが起こったかわかりませんでした。
jiko no (toki ○ / koro ×), nani ga okotta ka wakarimasen deshita
At the time of the accident, I didn't know what had happened.

ころ is used, like とき, directly after verbs or adjectives but with a の no after nouns.
子供のころ kodomo no koro = when I was a child
若かったころ wakakatta koro = when I was young

Related words

一頃 【ひところ】 (n-adv,n-t) once; some time ago
先頃; 先ごろ 【さきごろ】 (n-adv,n-t) recently; the other day; (P)
頃合; 頃合い 【ころあい】 (n) (1) suitable time; good time; (2) propriety; moderation
日ごろ; 日頃 【ひごろ】 (n-adv,n-t) normally; habitually; (P)
近頃(P); 近ごろ 【ちかごろ】 (n-adv,n-t) lately; recently; nowadays; (P)
この頃(P); 此の頃 【このごろ】 (n-adv,n-t) recently; nowadays; these days; (P)
年頃 【としごろ】 (adv,n) age; marriageable age; age of puberty; adolescence; for some years; (P)

Continue to lesson 7 Go back and review lesson 5

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