Grammar page 6
The fifth page of the grammar lessons.
Looks like ～みたい
Looks like we made it - as Barry Manilow would say - at least we made it half way!
台風が来るみたい。taifuu ga kuru mitai. It looks like a hurricane. [This could mean you are looking at storm clouds, OR someone told you a hurricane is coming and you are reporting that possibility]
And just stick it after a noun
この景色は夢みたい。 kono keshiki wa yume mitai. This scenery looks like a dream. [Useful if visiting Mt. Fuji - or, alternatively, if you have bad dreams, a garbage heap...]
あの人は日本人みたい。 ano hito WA nihonjin mitai. That person looks like he's [or she's] Japanese.
There is another usage of -mitai where it can mean 'try and see' when added to the て form of a verb: やってみたい yatte mitai - I'll give it a shot. 食べてみたい tabete mitai - I'll taste and see.
That is a bit different from the above, but it is also very useful!
I heard...; They say ～そう
While みたい can convey info you have heard as well as what you see, ～そう is mainly used for info that originated elsewhere. - I heard...
Construction: 1) simple verb + ~sou + desu/da
ゆきちゃんは 肉を 食べない そう だ。 yuki chan WA niku o tabenai sou DA I heard Yuki doesn't eat meat.
2) -i adjective + ~sou + desu/DA
田中さんの新しいパソコンはとても高いそうです。 tanaka san no atarashii pasokon wa totemo takai sou desu. I heard Tanaka's new computer is very expensive. [This info could have come from Tanaka himself, or someone else]
Like, as... ～ように
Here is a useful tag which means 'just as...' or 'like this...'
Construction: 1) simple verb + ~you ni
私が言うようにして。 watashi ga iu you ni shite. Do as I say.
2) noun + ~ no you ni
あなたは熊のプーさんのようにかわいいです。 anata wa kuma no pu-san no you ni kawaii desu. You are as cute as Winnie the Pooh
like, as if, apparently らしい
This is similar to ~sou where the speaker is repeating info heard from another source. The only difference may be ~rashii may be based on more reliable information.
Construction: 1) simple verb + ~rashii 山田さんは帰ったらしいです。 yamada san wa kaetta rashii desu. It sounds like Mr. Yamada has come home.
2) noun + ~rashii
There are a few nouns with rashii that you can remember as a word in itself. This meaning is slighly different from the above verb construction. Instead of meaning info heard elsewhere, when added to a noun it means the speaker thinks something looks like something. Here are a few:
男らしい otokorashii - manly (like a man)
女らしい onnarashii - girly (but perhaps 女っぽい onnappoi is used more)
犬らしい inurashii - like a dog (substitute any animal here. This is useful when you see an animal at night and are not sure what it is, but it looks like..)
アメリカらしい amerikarashii - American-ish (substitute any country)
Another similar construction with nouns is ~ppoi - as seen above with onnappoi. When added to nouns to mean 'looks like...' ~ppoi is the same as ~rashii
Must do なければなりません
This is a mouthful! But it is so useful. Learn it well
TO MAKE IT: plain negative form - i + ければ なりません kereba narimasen
ピーマンを食べなければなりません。 [Would be 食べない for the plain negative form ]
pi-man o tabenakereba narimasen.
(I) must eat green peppers. (Many Japanese children don't like green peppers)
Say that 5 times fast with your mouth full!
Perhaps the most useful usage is:
The し shi is from suru (to do)
benkyou shinakereba narimasen.
(I) must (have to) study.
(I) must (have to) do (it).
Construction: 1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou
Here are a few quick and useful examples:
行きましょう。 ikimashou. Let's go.
遊びましょう。 asobimashou. Let's play.
先生と話しましょう。 sensei to hanashimashou. Let's talk to the teacher.
日本語を勉強しましょう。 nihongo o benkyou shimashou. Let's study Japanese. This example uses suru. Another example would be:
スカイダイビングしましょう。 sukai daibingu shimashou. Let's go sky diving.
This construction is very easy if you know the masu (formal) form of the verb. If you are a beginner, you probably want to stick with the ~masu form anyway.
Won't you...? ～ませんか？
Why don't we study Japanese grammar?
ok. Since we have the above construction (using a negative to suggest doing something) in English, this grammar point isn't too difficult to grasp
Construction: 1) ~masu verb - masu + mashou
どこか行きませんか。 dokoka ikimasen.
Why don't we go already? [notice I have the English as 'we.' It could be 'you' if you are angry at the person and wish him to leave...]
映画を見ませんか。 eiga o mimasen ka. Why don't we see a movie.
何か飲みませんか。 nanika nomimasen ka.
Wouldn't you like to drink something? [In this case you are asking someone individually if they would like something to drink.]
Power ender "ね"
This is used at the end of a sentence and contains a variety of meanings. We will look at it as a question tag.
As a question tag: don't you... isn't it...
あなたはにんじんが嫌いですね。 anata wa ninjin ga kirai desu ne. You don't like carrots, don't you? その映画はとてもいい映画だったね。 sono eiga wa totemo ii eiga datta ne. Don't you think that was a good movie? 今日は暑いですね。 kyou wa atsui desu ne. Today is very hot, isn't it?
If you want to use ne as a question tag, it helps to nod your head, or change the inflection to let the listener know you would like a response. It is usually used when the speaker feels fairly certain his listeners agree with what was said.
A very useful phrase for whenever something good happens is:
いいね。 ii ne. Isn't that great!
When, that time とき
If you don't know when to say something, you will never say it!
Using とき toki - at the time when...
With a noun add a の
[Looking at a photo] 私は学生のときにはとても若かったね。 watashi wa gakusei no toki ni wa totemo wakakatta ne. [looking at a photo] When I was a student, I was very young, wasn't I?
And with verbs...
simple past フロリダに行ったときにこれを買いました。 furorida ni itta toki ni kore wo kaimashita. When I went to Florida, I bought this.
non-past フロリダに行くときはおみやげを買います。 furorida ni iku toki wa omiyage wo kaimasu. When I go to Florida, I will buy souvenirs.
continuing 寝るときいつも布団で寝ます。 neru toki itsumo futon de nemasu. When I sleep, I always sleep on a futon.
For more information on time related words, click here
This is a very useful add-on.
Use it as a counter:
how many people 来るのは何人ですか。kuru no wa nan nin desu ka? - How many people are coming?
how many years 何年アメリカに住んでいましたか。 nan nen amerika ni sunde imashita ka? - How many years did you live in America?
what number 次は何番ですか。 tsugi wa nan ban desu ka? - What is the next number?
what`s the temperature 温度は何度ですか。 ondo wa nando desu ka? - What is the temperature at?
|何曜日||nan you bi
what day of the week 今日は何曜日ですか。 kyou wa nan youbi desu ka? - What is the day of the week?
which day パーティーは何日ですか。 pa-ti wa nan nichi desu ka. - What day is the party?
how many pieces ジェリービーンを何個ほしいですか。 jeri-bi-n o nanko hoshii desu ka? - How many jelly beans do you want?
Some adverbial usages of 何
something 何か飲みたい。 nanika nomitai - I want something to drink
anything, whatever 何でもいいです。 nandemo ii desu. - Anything is fine.
how...! 何とすばらしい日。 nan to subarashii hi. - What a wonderful day!
|何のため||nan no tame
what for ここに来たのは、何のためですか。 koko ni kita no wa nan no tame desu ka? - Why did you come here?
somehow, in some way
|何となく分かる。||nantonaku wakaru. - I somehow understand.|
Continue to lesson 6 Go back and review lesson 4