Grammar page 7

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The sixth page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
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==Using こと、もの==
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[[Category:Grammar]]
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==Why don't we...? ~ませんか?==
 
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Why don't we study a little more?
 
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どこかで食べませんか? dokoka de tabemasen ka? Why don't we eat somewhere.
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This is how you say 'thing'
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何か飲みませんか? nanika nomimasen ka? Would you like something to drink. or Why don't we have a drink.
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Koto - intangible things
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The context decides if the meaning should be 'why don't WE' or 'Would YOU.'
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いい事はありません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good.  
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大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing.
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==A Closer look at を==
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昨日の事はすみませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing)
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Pronounced o but written in Japanese as wo. Simply put, を is the 'direct object marker or particle' which indicates the previous word is the direct object. There are cases when the English would not consider it a direct object, though. Learn some examples and give it a try. This particle is one of the easier ones...
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Mono - tangible things
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  私はりんごを食べました。 watashi wa ringo o tabemashita. I ate an apple. (apple is the を)
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  その黒いものは猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat?
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音楽を聞きたいです。 ongaku o kikitai desu. I want to listen to music. (music is the を)
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テレビを買うつもりです。 terebi o kau tsumori desu . I intend to buy a TV. (tsumori means'intend to'; TV is the を)
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おいしいものが食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good.
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==A Closer look at に==
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One useful phrase using koto is:
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In most cases the particle へ can be used interchangeably with に. But に has a wider application so for now just stick with に
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どういうこと?
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dou iu koto?
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What is the meaning of this?
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Showing movement toward... Like 'to'
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This phrase is used whenever the listener isn't sure of the motive of the speaker.  
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日本に行きたい。 nihon ni ikitai. I want to go to Japan. (direction TO Japan)
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どこに行きたいですか。 doko ni ikitai desu ka. Where do you want to go?
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Meaning 'on' or 'in'
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==situation, case 場合 ==
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紙に絵を書きました。 kami ni e o kakimashita. I drew a picture on a piece of paper.
 
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In time - 'at'
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This is one that should be learned by useful examples
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  六時に会いましょう。 roku ji ni aimashou . Let's meet at 6.  
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  非常の場合はボタンを押してください。 hijou no ba ai wa botan o oshite kudasai. In case of emergency push the button.  
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その場合はどうすればいい? sono ba ai wa dou sureba ii? In that situation, what should I do?
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==A Closer look at で==
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テストがあった場合、私は病気になります。 tesuto ga atta ba ai, watashi wa byouki ni narimasu. Should a test be given , I will get sick.
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This is used mainly for location.
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Used for location of where something happens
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==Etc... and... など、とか==
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デパートで帽子を買いました。 depa-to de boushi o kaimashita. I bought a hat at the Department store.
 
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日本で何をしましたか? nihon de nani o shimashita ka . In Japan, what did you do?
 
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Observe the difference between に and で:
 
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マクドナルドに行きたい。 makudonarudo ni ikitai. I want to go to McDonalds.
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Sometimes you have to say more than one thing. Whoever invented 'etc.' was a genius. Let's see how to do this in Japanese...
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マクドナルドで食べたい。 makudonarudo de tabetai. I want to eat at McDonalds.  
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First a few ways to list multiple items:
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==A Closer look at が==
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や ya - and, and so forth
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ピーマンやほうれん草が嫌いです。 pi-man ya hourensou ga kirai desu. I don't like green peppers, spinach and the like.
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This is the 'subject marker / particle'.  
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とか toka - or, and, and so forth
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熊のプーさんとかドラえもんとかキティちゃんが好きです。 kuma no pu-san toka doraemon toka kiti chan ga suki desu.
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I like things like Winnie the Pooh and Doraemon and Hello Kitty.
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And now for nado to wrap things up.
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  雨が降っています。 ame ga futteimasu. It's raining.
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  食べ物の中ではピザとかフライドポテトなどが好きです。 tabemono no naka dewa piza toka furaido poteto nado ga suki desu. As for foods,
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I like things like pizza or french fries.  
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There is a subtile difference between WA and GA and I don't pretend to try to completely explain it. Years from now, you will still make WA/GA mistakes. Still, in general you can say WA is the main TOPIC and GA is the more specific SUBJECT at hand. In the above example we say it is raining. The topic isn't about rain. We are simply stating the circumstances at the moment and the subject of that particular sentence is rain. If we were to talk all about rain, we would probably start with WA as in:
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雨は空から降ってくる水です。 ame wa sora kara futte kuru mizu desu.
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==About くらい or ぐらい==
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As for rain, it is water that falls from the sky. (You may go on to say more about the overall topic of rain.)
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Used with SUKI
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About how much? About how many?
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わたしは猫が好き。 watashi wa neko ga suki. I like cats.
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Sometimes the く turns into a ぐ probably after harder consonants. お客様はどのくらい来ましたか? okyakusama wa dono kurai kimashita ka? About how many customers came?
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Question words always use GA
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ええと、100人くらい来ました。 eeto, hyaku nin kurai kimashita. Let me see, About 100 people.
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  何がおいしい? nani ga oishii? What tastes good?
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  You can use this with time:
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  誰が来ました? dare ga kimashita? Who came?
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  8時ぐらい hachi ji gurai - about 8 O'clock
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  どこが一番いいところですか? doko ga ichi ban ii tokoro desu ka? Where is the best place?
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Or counting anything:
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2匹くらい ni hiki kurai - about 2 (animals)
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  10冊ぐらい juu satsu gurai - about 10 books
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If II たら
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==How about ...? どう==
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To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).
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A while back we found もし as the word that means 'if'. たら is added to the end of verbs to give the meaning of 'if this is done, then this will happen'
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You can used it with or without the final 'desu ka' in conversation. 最近はどうですか? saikin wa dou desu ka? How's it going recently?
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It is formed by finding the simple past form and adding a ら
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コーヒーはどう? ko-hi- wa dou? How's the coffee? or it could mean How about some coffee?
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天気・#92;報はどう? tenki yohou wa dou? How's the weather forecast looking?
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あなたが来たら、彼は帰る。 anata ga kitara kare wa kaeru If you are coming, he will go home.
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Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)
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The simple past form of 来る is 来た.The 2nd phrase is conditional on the たら phrase.
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ゴジラに会ったら、どうしよう? gojira ni attara doushiyou. What should I do if I meet Godzilla?
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==しまった、ちゃった==
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This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example, 最後のクーキーを食べてしまった。 I unfortunately ate the last cookie. Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.
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The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb
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You can also use it with nouns by using the simple past form of desu: だった
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全部のお金を使ってしまいました。 zenbu no okane o tsukatte shimaimashita. Unfortunately, I spent all my money.
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私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta. Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese.
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お金持ちだったら、大きな家が買えるのに。 okanemochi da tara ookina ie ga kaeru noni. If only I were rich, I could buy a large house.  
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Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau
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試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta. I flunked the test unfortunately.
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==Softener ちょっと==
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or in the present tense
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Many years ago I found an example in a book of how Japanese can be direct or politely indirect. For example you can say:
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ケーキを全部食べちゃう。 ke-ki o zenbu tabechau. I will eat all the cake.  
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1) こい! koi
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An important point by Mukade in the forums:
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In the Kansai area, the use of ちゃった is limited to female speakers.
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I learned both in the classroom, of course, since they are standard dialect.
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But when I moved here to Osaka, people started asking me if I was gay, since I kept using ちゃった all the time.
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If I could help prevent someone else from having to go through the same "hard knocks" learning process that I did, it would make me very happy.
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So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine. 
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or
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2) あのう、すみません、たいへん恐れいれますが、ちょっとこちらへいらっしゃってくださいませんでしょうか?
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==Please do... ~てください==
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Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...
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both mean 'come here' but #2 is much more polite being cushioned by many soft, indirect words. One of these words is ちょっと.
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add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb
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ゆっくり話してください。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly.
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もっと大人らしくしてください。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up.
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ここで右に曲がってください。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here.
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==Please give me... ~をください==
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ちょっと means 'little' or 'small amount' but it is often used to soften an otherwise painful 'no' or 'your request is impossible; live with it'
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Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."
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ちょっと難しいですが。 chotto muzukashi desu ga. That's a little difficult. (this may be said when the request is impossible)
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ちょっと出来ないです。 chotto dekinai desu. It can't be done.
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ちょっと分からないです。 chotto wakaranai desu. I'm not really sure.
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I have been told the sound 'chotto' is a bad word in Korean. If that is the case, chotto may not be that soft of a word...
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その本をください。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book.
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500円をください。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen.
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In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.
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==The power ender "よ"==
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==On, In, Above, Behind==
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When you want to impress upon your listener the importance or truth of what you are saying stick a よ at the end of the sentence.  
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A good knowledge of position particles will help glue everything together.  
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  本当ですよ。 hontou desu yo. It's the truth,
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  ===にni - on===
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  I tell ya! (Perhaps the speaker suspects the listener doesn't believe what he just said)
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机に本があります。 tsukue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on the desk.
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  のうえに no ue ni - on top of
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机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.
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  フロリダの12月は暑いですか? fururida no juu ni gatsu wa atsui desu ka? Is December in Florida is pretty hot?
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  ===のしたに no shita ni - under...===
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  結構寒いですよ。 kekkou samui desu yo. Actually, it is pretty cold.  
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  机のしたに本があります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.  
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It is very useful for rumors or explaining a truth you know someone may not swallow at first:
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===の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...===
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  鈴木さんは宇宙人ですよ。 suzuki san wa uchuujin desu yo. Suzuki is an alien, you know.
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  机の後ろに本があります。 tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book behind the desk.
'''Continue to [[Grammar page 7|lesson 7]]'''
'''Continue to [[Grammar page 7|lesson 7]]'''

Revision as of 13:02, 6 August 2006

Contents

Using こと、もの

This is how you say 'thing'

Koto - intangible things

いい事はありません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good. 
大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing. 
昨日の事はすみませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing) 

Mono - tangible things

その黒いものは猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat? 
おいしいものが食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good. 

One useful phrase using koto is:

どういうこと?
dou iu koto?
What is the meaning of this?

This phrase is used whenever the listener isn't sure of the motive of the speaker.


situation, case 場合

This is one that should be learned by useful examples

非常の場合はボタンを押してください。 hijou no ba ai wa botan o oshite kudasai. In case of emergency push the button. 
その場合はどうすればいい? sono ba ai wa dou sureba ii? In that situation, what should I do? 
テストがあった場合、私は病気になります。 tesuto ga atta ba ai, watashi wa byouki ni narimasu. Should a test be given , I will get sick. 

Etc... and... など、とか

Sometimes you have to say more than one thing. Whoever invented 'etc.' was a genius. Let's see how to do this in Japanese...

First a few ways to list multiple items:

や ya - and, and so forth 
ピーマンやほうれん草が嫌いです。 pi-man ya hourensou ga kirai desu. I don't like green peppers, spinach and the like. 
とか toka - or, and, and so forth 
熊のプーさんとかドラえもんとかキティちゃんが好きです。 kuma no pu-san toka doraemon toka kiti chan ga suki desu.
I like things like Winnie the Pooh and Doraemon and Hello Kitty. 

And now for nado to wrap things up.

食べ物の中ではピザとかフライドポテトなどが好きです。 tabemono no naka dewa piza toka furaido poteto nado ga suki desu. As for foods, 
I like things like pizza or french fries. 

About くらい or ぐらい

About how much? About how many?

Sometimes the く turns into a ぐ probably after harder consonants. お客様はどのくらい来ましたか? okyakusama wa dono kurai kimashita ka? About how many customers came?

ええと、100人くらい来ました。 eeto, hyaku nin kurai kimashita. Let me see, About 100 people. 
You can use this with time:
8時ぐらい hachi ji gurai - about 8 O'clock
Or counting anything:
2匹くらい ni hiki kurai - about 2 (animals)
10冊ぐらい juu satsu gurai - about 10 books

How about ...? どう

To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).

You can used it with or without the final 'desu ka' in conversation. 最近はどうですか? saikin wa dou desu ka? How's it going recently?

コーヒーはどう? ko-hi- wa dou? How's the coffee? or it could mean How about some coffee? 
天気・#92;報はどう? tenki yohou wa dou? How's the weather forecast looking? 

Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)


しまった、ちゃった

This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example, 最後のクーキーを食べてしまった。 I unfortunately ate the last cookie. Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.

The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb

全部のお金を使ってしまいました。 zenbu no okane o tsukatte shimaimashita. Unfortunately, I spent all my money. 
私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta. Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese. 

Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau

試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta. I flunked the test unfortunately. 

or in the present tense

ケーキを全部食べちゃう。 ke-ki o zenbu tabechau. I will eat all the cake. 
An important point by Mukade in the forums:
In the Kansai area, the use of ちゃった is limited to female speakers.
I learned both in the classroom, of course, since they are standard dialect. 
But when I moved here to Osaka, people started asking me if I was gay, since I kept using ちゃった all the time.
If I could help prevent someone else from having to go through the same "hard knocks" learning process that I did, it would make me very happy.
So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine.  

Please do... ~てください

Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...

add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb

ゆっくり話してください。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly. 
もっと大人らしくしてください。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up. 
ここで右に曲がってください。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here. 

Please give me... ~をください

Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."

その本をください。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book. 
500円をください。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen. 

In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.


On, In, Above, Behind

A good knowledge of position particles will help glue everything together.

===にni - on===
机に本があります。 tsukue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on the desk. 
のうえに no ue ni - on top of
机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk. 
===のしたに no shita ni - under...===
机のしたに本があります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk. 
===の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...===
机の後ろに本があります。 tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book behind the desk.

Continue to lesson 7

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