Grammar page 7

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[[Category:Grammar]]
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The seventh page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
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==Using 何==
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==Why don't we...? ~ませんか?==
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なん ''nan'' is a very useful add-on.
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Why don't we study a little more?
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With [[Counters|counters]] it can be used to mean "How many (''counter'')?".
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どこかで食べませんか? dokoka de tabemasen ka? Why don't we eat somewhere.  
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Some common counters are shown with examples below.
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何か飲みませんか? nanika nomimasen ka? Would you like something to drink. or Why don't we have a drink.  
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{|border=1
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|-
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|何人
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|なんにん nan nin
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how many people
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来るのは何人ですか。kuru no wa nan nin desu ka? - How many people are coming?
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|-
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|何年
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|なんねん nan nen
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how many years
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何年アメリカに住んでいましたか。 nan nen amerika ni sunde imashita ka? - How many years did you live in America?
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|-
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|何番
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|なんばん nan ban
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what number
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次は何番ですか。 tsugi wa nan ban desu ka? - What is the next number?
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|-
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|何度
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|なんど nan do
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what`s the temperature
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温度は何度ですか。 ondo wa nando desu ka? - What is the temperature at?
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|-
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|何曜日
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|なんようび nan you bi
 +
what day of the week
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今日は何曜日ですか。 kyou wa nan youbi desu ka? - What is the day of the week?
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|-
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|何日
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|なんにち nan nichi
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which day
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パーティーは何日ですか。 pa-ti wa nan nichi desu ka. - What day is the party?
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|-
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|何個
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|なんこ nan ko
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how many pieces
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ジェリービーンを何個ほしいですか。 jeri-bi-n o nanko hoshii desu ka? - How many jelly beans do you want?
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|}
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The context decides if the meaning should be 'why don't WE' or 'Would YOU.'
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===Some adverbial usages of 何===
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----
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You can also form various words and customary phrase using 何 (sometimes produced なに ''nani'', sometimes なん ''nan'')
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==A Closer look at を==
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{|border=1
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|-
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|何か
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|なにか nani ka
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something
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何か飲みたい。 nanika nomitai - I want something to drink
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|-
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|何でも
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|なんでも nan demo
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anything, whatever
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何でもいいです。 nandemo ii desu. - Anything is fine.
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|-
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|何と
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|なんと nan to
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how...!
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何とすばらしい日。 nan to subarashii hi. - What a wonderful day!
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|-
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|何のため
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|なんのため nan no tame
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what for
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ここに来たのは、何のためですか。 koko ni kita no wa nan no tame desu ka? - Why did you come here? 
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|-
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|何となく
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|なんとなく nantonaku
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somehow, in some way
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|-
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|何となく分かる。
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|なんとなくわかる。 nantonaku wakaru. - I somehow understand.
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|}
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Pronounced o but written in Japanese as wo. Simply put, を is the 'direct object marker or particle' which indicates the previous word is the direct object. There are cases when the English would not consider it a direct object, though. Learn some examples and give it a try. This particle is one of the easier ones...
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==Using こと/事、もの/物==
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私はりんごを食べました。 watashi wa ringo o tabemashita. I ate an apple. (apple is the を)
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This is how you say 'thing'
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音楽を聞きたいです。 ongaku o kikitai desu. I want to listen to music. (music is the を)
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テレビを買うつもりです。 terebi o kau tsumori desu . I intend to buy a TV. (tsumori means'intend to'; TV is the を)
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----
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Koto - intangible things
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==A Closer look at に==
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良い事は有りません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good.
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In most cases the particle へ can be used interchangeably with に. But に has a wider application so for now just stick with に
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大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing.  
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Showing movement toward... Like 'to'  
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昨日の事は済みませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing)
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日本に行きたい。 nihon ni ikitai. I want to go to Japan. (direction TO Japan)
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Mono - tangible things
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どこに行きたいですか。 doko ni ikitai desu ka. Where do you want to go?
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Meaning 'on' or 'in'
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其の黒い物は猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat?
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紙に絵を書きました。 kami ni e o kakimashita. I drew a picture on a piece of paper.  
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美味しい物が食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good.  
 +
 +
One useful phrase using koto is:
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In time - 'at'
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どう云う事?
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dou iu koto?
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What is the meaning of this?
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六時に会いましょう。 roku ji ni aimashou . Let's meet at 6.  
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This phrase is used whenever the listener isn't sure of the motive of the speaker.
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----
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==situation, case 場合 ==
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==A Closer look at で==
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This is one that should be learned by useful examples
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This is used mainly for location.  
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非常の場合はボタンを押してください。 hijou no ba ai wa botan o oshite kudasai. In case of emergency push the button.  
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Used for location of where something happens
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その場合はどうすればいい? sono ba ai wa dou sureba ii? In that situation, what should I do?
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デパートで帽子を買いました。 depa-to de boushi o kaimashita. I bought a hat at the Department store.
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テストがあった場合、私は病気になります。 tesuto ga atta ba ai, watashi wa byouki ni narimasu. Should a test be given , I will get sick.
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日本で何をしましたか? nihon de nani o shimashita ka . In Japan, what did you do?
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Observe the difference between に and で:
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==Etc... and... など、とか==
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マクドナルドに行きたい。 makudonarudo ni ikitai. I want to go to McDonalds.
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Sometimes you have to say more than one thing. Whoever invented 'etc.' was a genius. Let's see how to do this in Japanese...
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マクドナルドで食べたい。 makudonarudo de tabetai. I want to eat at McDonalds.  
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-
----
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First a few ways to list multiple items:
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==A Closer look at が==
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や ya - and, and so forth
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ピーマンやほうれん草が嫌いです。 pi-man ya hourensou ga kirai desu. I don't like green peppers, spinach and the like.
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This is the 'subject marker / particle'.  
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とか toka - or, and, and so forth
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熊のプーさんとかドラえもんとかキティちゃんが好きです。 kuma no pu-san toka doraemon toka kiti chan ga suki desu.
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I like things like Winnie the Pooh and Doraemon and Hello Kitty.
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 +
And now for nado to wrap things up.
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雨が降っています。 ame ga futteimasu. It's raining.
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食べ物の中ではピザとかフライドポテトなどが好きです。 tabemono no naka dewa piza toka furaido poteto nado ga suki desu. As for foods,
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I like things like pizza or french fries.  
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There is a subtile difference between WA and GA and I don't pretend to try to completely explain it. Years from now, you will still make WA/GA mistakes. Still, in general you can say WA is the main TOPIC and GA is the more specific SUBJECT at hand. In the above example we say it is raining. The topic isn't about rain. We are simply stating the circumstances at the moment and the subject of that particular sentence is rain. If we were to talk all about rain, we would probably start with WA as in:
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==About くらい or ぐらい==
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雨は空から降ってくる水です。 ame wa sora kara futte kuru mizu desu.
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About how much? About how many?
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As for rain, it is water that falls from the sky. (You may go on to say more about the overall topic of rain.)
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Used with SUKI
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Sometimes the く turns into a ぐ probably after harder consonants. お客様はどのくらい来ましたか? okyakusama wa dono kurai kimashita ka? About how many customers came?
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わたしは猫が好き。 watashi wa neko ga suki. I like cats.  
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ええと、100人くらい来ました。 eeto, hyaku nin kurai kimashita. Let me see, About 100 people.  
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Question words always use GA
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You can use this with time:
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8時ぐらい hachi ji gurai - about 8 O'clock
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何がおいしい? nani ga oishii? What tastes good?
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Or counting anything:
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誰が来ました? dare ga kimashita? Who came?
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2匹くらい ni hiki kurai - about 2 (animals)
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どこが一番いいところですか? doko ga ichi ban ii tokoro desu ka? Where is the best place?
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10冊ぐらい juu satsu gurai - about 10 books
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----
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==How about ...? どう==
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To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).
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If II たら
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You can used it with or without the final 'desu ka' in conversation. 最近はどうですか? saikin wa dou desu ka? How's it going recently?
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A while back we found もし as the word that means 'if'. たら is added to the end of verbs to give the meaning of 'if this is done, then this will happen'
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コーヒーはどう? ko-hi- wa dou? How's the coffee? or it could mean How about some coffee?
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天気予報はどう? tenki yohou wa dou? How's the weather forecast looking?
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It is formed by finding the simple past form and adding a
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Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)
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あなたが来たら、彼は帰る。 anata ga kitara kare wa kaeru If you are coming, he will go home.
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==しまった/仕舞った、ちゃった==
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This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example,<br>
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最後のクッキーを食べてしまった。saigo no kukkii wo tabete shimatta.<br>
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I unfortunately ate the last cookie.<br>
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Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.<br>
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The simple past form of 来る is 来た.The 2nd phrase is conditional on the たら phrase.
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The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb
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ゴジラに会ったら、どうしよう? gojira ni attara doushiyou. What should I do if I meet Godzilla?
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お金を全部使ってしまいました。okane o zenbu tsukatte shimaimashita.<br>
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Unfortunately, I spent all my money.<br>
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私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta.<br>
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Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese. <br>
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Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau
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You can also use it with nouns by using the simple past form of desu: だった
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試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta. <br>
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I flunked the test unfortunately.
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お金持ちだったら、大きな家が買えるのに。 okanemochi da tara ookina ie ga kaeru noni. If only I were rich, I could buy a large house.
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or in the present tense
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----
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ケーキを全部食べちゃう。ke-ki o zenbu tabechau. <br>
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I will eat all the cake.
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==Softener ちょっと==
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Mukade reports
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"In the Kansai area, the use of ちゃった is limited to female speakers. I learned both in the classroom, of course, since they are standard dialect. But when I moved here to Osaka, people started asking me if I was gay, since I kept using ちゃった all the time. If I could help prevent someone else from having to go through the same "hard knocks" learning process that I did, it would make me very happy.
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Many years ago I found an example in a book of how Japanese can be direct or politely indirect. For example you can say:
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So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine."
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1) こい! koi
 
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or
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Related threads.[http://www.thejapanesepage.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=7890 Te + shimau]<br>
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[http://www.thejapanesepage.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=5314 can't help but...]<br>
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See also [[てしまう]]
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2) あのう、すみません、たいへん恐れいれますが、ちょっとこちらへいらっしゃってくださいませんでしょうか?
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==Please do... ~てください/~て下さい==
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Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...
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both mean 'come here' but #2 is much more polite being cushioned by many soft, indirect words. One of these words is ちょっと.
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add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb
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ちょっと means 'little' or 'small amount' but it is often used to soften an otherwise painful 'no' or 'your request is impossible; live with it'
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ゆっくり話して下さい。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly.  
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ちょっと難しいですが。 chotto muzukashi desu ga. That's a little difficult. (this may be said when the request is impossible)
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もっと大人らしくして下さい。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up.  
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ちょっと出来ないです。 chotto dekinai desu. It can't be done.
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此処で右に曲がって下さい。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here.
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ちょっと分からないです。 chotto wakaranai desu. I'm not really sure.
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I have been told the sound 'chotto' is a bad word in Korean. If that is the case, chotto may not be that soft of a word...
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==Please give me... ~をください/~を下さい==
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----
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Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."
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==The power ender "よ"==
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其の本を下さい。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book.
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500円を下さい。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen.
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In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.
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When you want to impress upon your listener the importance or truth of what you are saying stick a よ at the end of the sentence.
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==On, In, Above, Behind==
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本当ですよ。 hontou desu yo. It's the truth,
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A good knowledge of position particles will help glue everything together.  
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I tell ya! (Perhaps the speaker suspects the listener doesn't believe what he just said)
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フロリダの12月は暑いですか? fururida no juu ni gatsu wa atsui desu ka? Is December in Florida is pretty hot?
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===にni - on===
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結構寒いですよ。 kekkou samui desu yo. Actually, it is pretty cold.  
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机に本があります。 tsukue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on the desk.
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のうえに no ue ni - on top of
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机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.
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===のしたに/~の下に no shita ni - under...===
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机の下に本が有ります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.
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===の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...===
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机の後ろに本があります。 tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book behind the desk.
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[[Category:Grammar]]
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It is very useful for rumors or explaining a truth you know someone may not swallow at first:
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 8|lesson 8]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 6|lesson 6]]'''
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鈴木さんは宇宙人ですよ。 suzuki san wa uchuujin desu yo. Suzuki is an alien, you know.
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Current revision as of 16:50, 14 May 2010

The seventh page of the grammar lessons.

Contents

Using 何

なん nan is a very useful add-on.

With counters it can be used to mean "How many (counter)?".

Some common counters are shown with examples below.

何人 なんにん nan nin

how many people 来るのは何人ですか。kuru no wa nan nin desu ka? - How many people are coming?

何年 なんねん nan nen

how many years 何年アメリカに住んでいましたか。 nan nen amerika ni sunde imashita ka? - How many years did you live in America?

何番 なんばん nan ban

what number 次は何番ですか。 tsugi wa nan ban desu ka? - What is the next number?

何度 なんど nan do

what`s the temperature 温度は何度ですか。 ondo wa nando desu ka? - What is the temperature at?

何曜日 なんようび nan you bi

what day of the week 今日は何曜日ですか。 kyou wa nan youbi desu ka? - What is the day of the week?

何日 なんにち nan nichi

which day パーティーは何日ですか。 pa-ti wa nan nichi desu ka. - What day is the party?

何個 なんこ nan ko

how many pieces ジェリービーンを何個ほしいですか。 jeri-bi-n o nanko hoshii desu ka? - How many jelly beans do you want?

Some adverbial usages of 何

You can also form various words and customary phrase using 何 (sometimes produced なに nani, sometimes なん nan)

何か なにか nani ka

something 何か飲みたい。 nanika nomitai - I want something to drink

何でも なんでも nan demo

anything, whatever 何でもいいです。 nandemo ii desu. - Anything is fine.

何と なんと nan to

how...! 何とすばらしい日。 nan to subarashii hi. - What a wonderful day!

何のため なんのため nan no tame

what for ここに来たのは、何のためですか。 koko ni kita no wa nan no tame desu ka? - Why did you come here?

何となく なんとなく nantonaku

somehow, in some way

何となく分かる。 なんとなくわかる。 nantonaku wakaru. - I somehow understand.

Using こと/事、もの/物

This is how you say 'thing'

Koto - intangible things

良い事は有りません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good.

大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing.

昨日の事は済みませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing)

Mono - tangible things

其の黒い物は猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat?

美味しい物が食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good.

One useful phrase using koto is:

どう云う事? dou iu koto? What is the meaning of this?

This phrase is used whenever the listener isn't sure of the motive of the speaker.

situation, case 場合

This is one that should be learned by useful examples

非常の場合はボタンを押してください。 hijou no ba ai wa botan o oshite kudasai. In case of emergency push the button.

その場合はどうすればいい? sono ba ai wa dou sureba ii? In that situation, what should I do?

テストがあった場合、私は病気になります。 tesuto ga atta ba ai, watashi wa byouki ni narimasu. Should a test be given , I will get sick.

Etc... and... など、とか

Sometimes you have to say more than one thing. Whoever invented 'etc.' was a genius. Let's see how to do this in Japanese...

First a few ways to list multiple items:

や ya - and, and so forth ピーマンやほうれん草が嫌いです。 pi-man ya hourensou ga kirai desu. I don't like green peppers, spinach and the like.

とか toka - or, and, and so forth 熊のプーさんとかドラえもんとかキティちゃんが好きです。 kuma no pu-san toka doraemon toka kiti chan ga suki desu. I like things like Winnie the Pooh and Doraemon and Hello Kitty.

And now for nado to wrap things up.

食べ物の中ではピザとかフライドポテトなどが好きです。 tabemono no naka dewa piza toka furaido poteto nado ga suki desu. As for foods, I like things like pizza or french fries.

About くらい or ぐらい

About how much? About how many?

Sometimes the く turns into a ぐ probably after harder consonants. お客様はどのくらい来ましたか? okyakusama wa dono kurai kimashita ka? About how many customers came?

ええと、100人くらい来ました。 eeto, hyaku nin kurai kimashita. Let me see, About 100 people.

You can use this with time: 8時ぐらい hachi ji gurai - about 8 O'clock

Or counting anything: 2匹くらい ni hiki kurai - about 2 (animals) 10冊ぐらい juu satsu gurai - about 10 books

How about ...? どう

To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).

You can used it with or without the final 'desu ka' in conversation. 最近はどうですか? saikin wa dou desu ka? How's it going recently?

コーヒーはどう? ko-hi- wa dou? How's the coffee? or it could mean How about some coffee? 天気予報はどう? tenki yohou wa dou? How's the weather forecast looking?

Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)

しまった/仕舞った、ちゃった

This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example,
最後のクッキーを食べてしまった。saigo no kukkii wo tabete shimatta.
I unfortunately ate the last cookie.
Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.

The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb

お金を全部使ってしまいました。okane o zenbu tsukatte shimaimashita.
Unfortunately, I spent all my money.
私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta.
Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese.

Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau

試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta.
I flunked the test unfortunately.

or in the present tense

ケーキを全部食べちゃう。ke-ki o zenbu tabechau.
I will eat all the cake.

Mukade reports "In the Kansai area, the use of ちゃった is limited to female speakers. I learned both in the classroom, of course, since they are standard dialect. But when I moved here to Osaka, people started asking me if I was gay, since I kept using ちゃった all the time. If I could help prevent someone else from having to go through the same "hard knocks" learning process that I did, it would make me very happy.

So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine."


Related threads.Te + shimau
can't help but...
See also てしまう

Please do... ~てください/~て下さい

Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...

add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb

ゆっくり話して下さい。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly. もっと大人らしくして下さい。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up. 此処で右に曲がって下さい。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here.

Please give me... ~をください/~を下さい

Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."

其の本を下さい。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book. 500円を下さい。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen.

In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.

On, In, Above, Behind

A good knowledge of position particles will help glue everything together.

にni - on

机に本があります。 tsukue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on the desk. のうえに no ue ni - on top of 机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.

のしたに/~の下に no shita ni - under...

机の下に本が有ります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.

の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...

机の後ろに本があります。 tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book behind the desk.

Continue to lesson 8 Go back and review lesson 6

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