Grammar page 7

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The sixth page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
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The seventh page of the grammar [[Lessons|lessons]].
==Using 何==
==Using 何==
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|-
|-
|何人
|何人
-
|nan nin
+
|なんにん nan nin
how many people
how many people
来るのは何人ですか。kuru no wa nan nin desu ka? - How many people are coming?  
来るのは何人ですか。kuru no wa nan nin desu ka? - How many people are coming?  
|-
|-
|何年  
|何年  
-
|nan nen
+
|なんねん nan nen
how many years
how many years
何年アメリカに住んでいましたか。 nan nen amerika ni sunde imashita ka? - How many years did you live in America?  
何年アメリカに住んでいましたか。 nan nen amerika ni sunde imashita ka? - How many years did you live in America?  
|-
|-
|何番  
|何番  
-
|nan ban
+
|なんばん nan ban
what number
what number
次は何番ですか。 tsugi wa nan ban desu ka? - What is the next number?  
次は何番ですか。 tsugi wa nan ban desu ka? - What is the next number?  
|-
|-
|何度  
|何度  
-
|nan do
+
|なんど nan do
what`s the temperature
what`s the temperature
温度は何度ですか。 ondo wa nando desu ka? - What is the temperature at?  
温度は何度ですか。 ondo wa nando desu ka? - What is the temperature at?  
|-
|-
|何曜日  
|何曜日  
-
|nan you bi
+
|なんようび nan you bi
what day of the week
what day of the week
今日は何曜日ですか。 kyou wa nan youbi desu ka? - What is the day of the week?  
今日は何曜日ですか。 kyou wa nan youbi desu ka? - What is the day of the week?  
|-
|-
|何日
|何日
-
|nan nichi
+
|なんにち nan nichi
which day
which day
パーティーは何日ですか。 pa-ti wa nan nichi desu ka. - What day is the party?  
パーティーは何日ですか。 pa-ti wa nan nichi desu ka. - What day is the party?  
|-
|-
|何個  
|何個  
-
|nan ko
+
|なんこ nan ko
how many pieces
how many pieces
ジェリービーンを何個ほしいですか。 jeri-bi-n o nanko hoshii desu ka? - How many jelly beans do you want?
ジェリービーンを何個ほしいですか。 jeri-bi-n o nanko hoshii desu ka? - How many jelly beans do you want?
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|-
|-
|何か  
|何か  
-
|nani ka  
+
|なにか nani ka  
something  
something  
何か飲みたい。 nanika nomitai - I want something to drink  
何か飲みたい。 nanika nomitai - I want something to drink  
|-
|-
|何でも  
|何でも  
-
|nan demo
+
|なんでも nan demo
anything, whatever
anything, whatever
何でもいいです。 nandemo ii desu. - Anything is fine.  
何でもいいです。 nandemo ii desu. - Anything is fine.  
|-
|-
|何と
|何と
-
|nan to
+
|なんと nan to
how...!  
how...!  
何とすばらしい日。 nan to subarashii hi. - What a wonderful day!  
何とすばらしい日。 nan to subarashii hi. - What a wonderful day!  
|-
|-
|何のため  
|何のため  
-
|nan no tame
+
|なんのため nan no tame
what for
what for
ここに来たのは、何のためですか。 koko ni kita no wa nan no tame desu ka? - Why did you come here?   
ここに来たのは、何のためですか。 koko ni kita no wa nan no tame desu ka? - Why did you come here?   
|-
|-
|何となく  
|何となく  
-
|nantonaku
+
|なんとなく nantonaku
somehow, in some way
somehow, in some way
|-
|-
|何となく分かる。  
|何となく分かる。  
-
|nantonaku wakaru. - I somehow understand.  
+
|なんとなくわかる。 nantonaku wakaru. - I somehow understand.  
|}
|}
-
==Using こと、もの==
+
==Using こと/事、もの/物==
This is how you say 'thing'
This is how you say 'thing'
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Koto - intangible things
Koto - intangible things
-
いい事はありません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good.  
+
良い事は有りません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good.  
大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing.  
大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing.  
-
昨日の事はすみませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing)  
+
昨日の事は済みませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing)  
Mono - tangible things
Mono - tangible things
-
その黒いものは猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat?  
+
其の黒い物は猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat?  
-
おいしいものが食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good.  
+
美味しい物が食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good.  
   
   
One useful phrase using koto is:
One useful phrase using koto is:
-
どういうこと?
+
どう云う事?
dou iu koto?
dou iu koto?
What is the meaning of this?
What is the meaning of this?
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Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)
Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)
-
==しまった、ちゃった==
+
==しまった/仕舞った、ちゃった==
-
This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example, 最後のクーキーを食べてしまった。 I unfortunately ate the last cookie. Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.
+
This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example,<br>
 +
最後のクッキーを食べてしまった。saigo no kukkii wo tabete shimatta.<br>
 +
I unfortunately ate the last cookie.<br>
 +
Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.<br>
The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb  
The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb  
-
全部のお金を使ってしまいました。 zenbu no okane o tsukatte shimaimashita. Unfortunately, I spent all my money.  
+
お金を全部使ってしまいました。okane o zenbu tsukatte shimaimashita.<br>
-
私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta. Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese.  
+
Unfortunately, I spent all my money.<br>
 +
私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta.<br>
 +
Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese. <br>
Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau  
Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau  
-
試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta. I flunked the test unfortunately.  
+
試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta. <br>
 +
I flunked the test unfortunately.  
or in the present tense  
or in the present tense  
-
ケーキを全部食べちゃう。 ke-ki o zenbu tabechau. I will eat all the cake.  
+
ケーキを全部食べちゃう。ke-ki o zenbu tabechau. <br>
 +
I will eat all the cake.  
Mukade reports
Mukade reports
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So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine."
So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine."
-
==Please do... ~てください==  
+
 
 +
Related threads.[http://www.thejapanesepage.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=7890 Te + shimau]<br>
 +
[http://www.thejapanesepage.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=5314 can't help but...]<br>
 +
See also [[てしまう]]
 +
 
 +
==Please do... ~てください/~て下さい==  
Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...
Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...
add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb  
add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb  
-
ゆっくり話してください。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly.  
+
ゆっくり話して下さい。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly.  
-
もっと大人らしくしてください。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up.  
+
もっと大人らしくして下さい。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up.  
-
ここで右に曲がってください。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here.  
+
此処で右に曲がって下さい。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here.
-
==Please give me... ~をください==  
+
==Please give me... ~をください/~を下さい==  
Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."
Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."
-
その本をください。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book.  
+
其の本を下さい。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book.  
-
500円をください。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen.  
+
500円を下さい。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen.  
   
   
In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.
In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.
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机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.  
机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.  
-
===のしたに no shita ni - under...===
+
===のしたに/~の下に no shita ni - under...===
-
机のしたに本があります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.  
+
机の下に本が有ります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.
===の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...===
===の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...===
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[[Category:Grammar]]
[[Category:Grammar]]
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'''Continue to [[Grammar page 7|lesson 7]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 5|lesson 5]]'''
+
'''Continue to [[Grammar page 8|lesson 8]]  Go back and review [[Grammar page 6|lesson 6]]'''

Current revision as of 16:50, 14 May 2010

The seventh page of the grammar lessons.

Contents

Using 何

なん nan is a very useful add-on.

With counters it can be used to mean "How many (counter)?".

Some common counters are shown with examples below.

何人 なんにん nan nin

how many people 来るのは何人ですか。kuru no wa nan nin desu ka? - How many people are coming?

何年 なんねん nan nen

how many years 何年アメリカに住んでいましたか。 nan nen amerika ni sunde imashita ka? - How many years did you live in America?

何番 なんばん nan ban

what number 次は何番ですか。 tsugi wa nan ban desu ka? - What is the next number?

何度 なんど nan do

what`s the temperature 温度は何度ですか。 ondo wa nando desu ka? - What is the temperature at?

何曜日 なんようび nan you bi

what day of the week 今日は何曜日ですか。 kyou wa nan youbi desu ka? - What is the day of the week?

何日 なんにち nan nichi

which day パーティーは何日ですか。 pa-ti wa nan nichi desu ka. - What day is the party?

何個 なんこ nan ko

how many pieces ジェリービーンを何個ほしいですか。 jeri-bi-n o nanko hoshii desu ka? - How many jelly beans do you want?

Some adverbial usages of 何

You can also form various words and customary phrase using 何 (sometimes produced なに nani, sometimes なん nan)

何か なにか nani ka

something 何か飲みたい。 nanika nomitai - I want something to drink

何でも なんでも nan demo

anything, whatever 何でもいいです。 nandemo ii desu. - Anything is fine.

何と なんと nan to

how...! 何とすばらしい日。 nan to subarashii hi. - What a wonderful day!

何のため なんのため nan no tame

what for ここに来たのは、何のためですか。 koko ni kita no wa nan no tame desu ka? - Why did you come here?

何となく なんとなく nantonaku

somehow, in some way

何となく分かる。 なんとなくわかる。 nantonaku wakaru. - I somehow understand.

Using こと/事、もの/物

This is how you say 'thing'

Koto - intangible things

良い事は有りません。 ii koto wa arimasen. There isn't anything good.

大事な事を教えます。 daiji na koto o oshiemasu. I will tell you an important thing.

昨日の事は済みませんでした。 kinou no koto wa sumimasen deshita. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. (yesterday's thing)

Mono - tangible things

其の黒い物は猫かなあ。 sono kuroi mono wa neko kanaa. I wonder if that black thing is a cat?

美味しい物が食べたい。 oishii mono ga tabetai. I want to eat something good.

One useful phrase using koto is:

どう云う事? dou iu koto? What is the meaning of this?

This phrase is used whenever the listener isn't sure of the motive of the speaker.

situation, case 場合

This is one that should be learned by useful examples

非常の場合はボタンを押してください。 hijou no ba ai wa botan o oshite kudasai. In case of emergency push the button.

その場合はどうすればいい? sono ba ai wa dou sureba ii? In that situation, what should I do?

テストがあった場合、私は病気になります。 tesuto ga atta ba ai, watashi wa byouki ni narimasu. Should a test be given , I will get sick.

Etc... and... など、とか

Sometimes you have to say more than one thing. Whoever invented 'etc.' was a genius. Let's see how to do this in Japanese...

First a few ways to list multiple items:

や ya - and, and so forth ピーマンやほうれん草が嫌いです。 pi-man ya hourensou ga kirai desu. I don't like green peppers, spinach and the like.

とか toka - or, and, and so forth 熊のプーさんとかドラえもんとかキティちゃんが好きです。 kuma no pu-san toka doraemon toka kiti chan ga suki desu. I like things like Winnie the Pooh and Doraemon and Hello Kitty.

And now for nado to wrap things up.

食べ物の中ではピザとかフライドポテトなどが好きです。 tabemono no naka dewa piza toka furaido poteto nado ga suki desu. As for foods, I like things like pizza or french fries.

About くらい or ぐらい

About how much? About how many?

Sometimes the く turns into a ぐ probably after harder consonants. お客様はどのくらい来ましたか? okyakusama wa dono kurai kimashita ka? About how many customers came?

ええと、100人くらい来ました。 eeto, hyaku nin kurai kimashita. Let me see, About 100 people.

You can use this with time: 8時ぐらい hachi ji gurai - about 8 O'clock

Or counting anything: 2匹くらい ni hiki kurai - about 2 (animals) 10冊ぐらい juu satsu gurai - about 10 books

How about ...? どう

To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).

You can used it with or without the final 'desu ka' in conversation. 最近はどうですか? saikin wa dou desu ka? How's it going recently?

コーヒーはどう? ko-hi- wa dou? How's the coffee? or it could mean How about some coffee? 天気予報はどう? tenki yohou wa dou? How's the weather forecast looking?

Of course when the context is understood you can simply say, 'dou' (Like returning from a doctor's appointment, or after your friend gets off an important phone call)

しまった/仕舞った、ちゃった

This literally means 'to complete, finish' but can (and usually does) involve a regret over having done something. Also it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something, but gives a halfhearted apology. For example,
最後のクッキーを食べてしまった。saigo no kukkii wo tabete shimatta.
I unfortunately ate the last cookie.
Of course there really wasn't anything unfortunate about it.

The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb

お金を全部使ってしまいました。okane o zenbu tsukatte shimaimashita.
Unfortunately, I spent all my money.
私は完全に日本語を忘れてしまった。watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo o wasurete shimatta.
Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese.

Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is informal and is used by both male and female speakers. chau is made by combining te shimau -> chau

試験に落ちちゃった。 shiken ni ochichatta.
I flunked the test unfortunately.

or in the present tense

ケーキを全部食べちゃう。ke-ki o zenbu tabechau.
I will eat all the cake.

Mukade reports "In the Kansai area, the use of ちゃった is limited to female speakers. I learned both in the classroom, of course, since they are standard dialect. But when I moved here to Osaka, people started asking me if I was gay, since I kept using ちゃった all the time. If I could help prevent someone else from having to go through the same "hard knocks" learning process that I did, it would make me very happy.

So be careful if you are in the Kansai area! But in most areas it should be fine."


Related threads.Te + shimau
can't help but...
See also てしまう

Please do... ~てください/~て下さい

Here's how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...

add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb

ゆっくり話して下さい。 yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Please speak slowly. もっと大人らしくして下さい。 motto otona rashiku shite kudasai. Please act more grown-up. 此処で右に曲がって下さい。 koko de migi ni magatte kudasai. Please turn right here.

Please give me... ~をください/~を下さい

Another use for kudasai is "please give me..."

其の本を下さい。 sono hon o kudasai. Please give me that book. 500円を下さい。 go hyaku en o kudasai. Please give me 500 yen.

In spoken Japanese, the 'o' is usually dropped.

On, In, Above, Behind

A good knowledge of position particles will help glue everything together.

にni - on

机に本があります。 tsukue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on the desk. のうえに no ue ni - on top of 机のうえに本があります。 tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book on (top of) the desk.

のしたに/~の下に no shita ni - under...

机の下に本が有ります。 tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book under the desk.

の後ろに no ushiro ni - behind...

机の後ろに本があります。 tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu. There is a book behind the desk.

Continue to lesson 8 Go back and review lesson 6

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