Grammatical terms

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自動詞 jidoushi - [[intransitive verb]]
自動詞 jidoushi - [[intransitive verb]]
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(始まる hajimaru sth. start, 開く aku sth. open)
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(始まる hajimaru sth. starts, 開く aku sth. opens)
他動詞 tadoushi - [[transitive verb]]
他動詞 tadoushi - [[transitive verb]]

Revision as of 01:59, 22 May 2010


Contents

Parts of speech

名詞 meishi - noun (猫 neko cat, 本 hon book, 飛行機 hikouki plane)

動詞 doushi - verb (食べる taberu to eat, 考える kangaeru to think, 話す hanasu to speak)

形容詞 keiyoushi - i-adjective (青い aoi blue, 可愛い kawaii cute)

形容動詞 keiyoudoushi - na-adjective (きれい kirei beautiful, 歴史的 rekishiteki historical)

副詞 fukushi - adverb (脱兎の如く dattou no gotoku quick[as fast as lightening], 早く hayaku quickly, きれいに kirei ni cleanly, ゆっくり yukkuri slowly)

代名詞 daimeishi -pronoun (私 watashi I, 我が waga my, 此処 koko here, 其れ sore that, ああ aa that way, 誰 dare who, 何処も dokomo everywhere)

人称代名詞 ninshou daimeishi - personal pronoun (彼 kare he, 彼ら karera they, あなた anata you, わ (old) wa I)

助詞 joshi - particle

Different types of verbs

自動詞 jidoushi - intransitive verb (始まる hajimaru sth. starts, 開く aku sth. opens)

他動詞 tadoushi - transitive verb (始める hajimeru to start sth., 開ける akeru to open sth.)

可能動詞 kanou doushi - potential verb (~rareru, ~reru, ~eru, ~reru, 出来る dekiru can, 行かれる ikareru to be able to go, 行ける ikeru can go, 食べられる taberareru to be able to eat, 食べれる (colloq.) tabereru can eat)

状態動詞 joutai doushi - stative verbu

使役 shieki - causative (~seru, ~saseru, ~su (old), ~sasu (old), eg 開かせる 開けさせる 咲かす 食べさす)

受け身 ukemi - passive (~reru or ~rareru, eg 下さられる kudasarareru to be given, 搾られる shiborareru to be squeezed)

助動詞 jodoushi - auxiliary verb (ず/ぬ negation, つ affirmative, き/し past, む/ん future, 得る eru/uru passive/potenital/honorific, ます polite)

指定詞 shiteshi - copula (なり である だ です...)

Inflection

活用語 katsuyougo - inflected form (verbs, adjectives...)

無活用語 mukatsuyougo - uninflected form (nouns, pronouns, conjunctions...)

シク活用 shiki katsuyou - shiku inflection of i-adjectives (美味し [終止形] oishi 美味しく oishiku [連用形] delicious )

ク活用 ku katsuyou - ku inflection of i-adjectives (無し nashi [終止形] 無く [連用形] naku [shuushikei] not)

NOTE: The only difference is that shiku inflecting adjectives do not gain an additional し in their 終止形 predicative form.

規則動詞 kisokudoushi - regular verb

不規則動詞 fukisokudoushi - irregular verb (する くる くださる ござる いらっしゃる おっしゃる なさる ある だ です いく)

五段(活用動詞) godan (katsuyou doushi) - five row inflecting verb (modern 四段, 著ろう ikou let's wear)

四段(活用動詞) yodan (katsuyou doushi) - four row inflecting verb

上一段 kamiichidan - upper one row inflecting verb (似る niru to resemble, 見る miru to see ...)

下一段 shimoichidan - lower one row inflecting verb (蹴る keru to kick)

上二段 kaminidan - upper two rows inflecting verb

下二段 shimonidan - lower two rows inflecting verb

ラ変 rahen - ra column irregularly inflecting verb (有り ari to be)

サ変 sahen - sa column irregularly inflecting verb (為 su to do)

ナ変 nahen - na column irregularly inflecting verb (死ぬ shinu to die)

カ変 kahen - ka column irregularly inflecting verb (来 ku to come)

~形 ~kei - ~form  


The examples below include usages of the verbal form, which is marked in bold.

未然形 mizenkei - imperfective form (~a, -ru, 行かない ikanai not go, 消えられる kierareru to be able to disappear)

連用形 renyoukei - conjunctive/continuative form (~i, -ru, 歩きやすい arukiyasui to be easy to walk, 信じます shinjimasu to believe (polite))

連体形 rentaikei - attributative form (~u, ~ru, 死な男 shinanu otoko man who does not die, 落つるotsuru ishi stone that falls)

終止形 shuushikei - predicative form (~u, ~uru, ~eru, 九性有り kyuusei ari to have nine lives, 勉強 benkyou su to do study)

已然形 izenkei (old name) - perfective form (~e, ~re, 読めyomeba when I read, 水飲めば midzu nomeba had I drunken water )

仮定形 kateikei - hypothetical form (same as above 已然形)

命令形 meireikei - commanding form (~e, -ru, 生きろ/よ ikiro/yo Live!, 行け ike Go!, 来い koi Come!) Note that 命令形 refers to both the grammatical inflected form of a verb (生き) and the final commanding form of the verb as used in speech(生きろ/生きよ).

テ形 te kei (1) also te-stem, same as 連用形  (2) て affixed to the 連用形, which may cause sound changes, conjunctive/continuative form (行って来ます ittekimasu Go and come back!、 食べて tabete Please eat!)

マス形 (1) also masu-stem, same as 連用形  (2) ます affixed to the 連用形, polite form

ナイ形 (1) also nai-stem, same as 未然形  (2) 無い affixed to the 未然形, negation, negative form

Politeness

敬語 keigo - polite language, as opposed to neutral language (multiple levels, see below for examples)

丁寧語 teineigo - (simple-,neutral-) polite language (本を買います hon wo kaimasu someone buys a book, 寒いです samui desu it's cold [outside])

謙譲語 kenjougo - humble language (呼び致す yobi itasu to call, 居(お)る oru be/exist)

尊敬語 sonkeigo - honorific language (呼びに成る yobi ni naru to call, 亡く成りに成る naku nari ni naru to die)

美化語 bikago - beautified language (御 prefixing, change of vocabulary) (御茶 ocha tea, 飯 meshi -> 御飯 gohan cooked rice/meal

呼捨て yobisute - speech ommitting honorific suffixes

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