Grammatical terms

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形容動詞 keiyoudoushi - na-adjective
形容動詞 keiyoudoushi - na-adjective
(きれい kirei beautiful, 歴史的 rekishiteki historical)
(きれい kirei beautiful, 歴史的 rekishiteki historical)
-
 
-
形容詞
 
副詞 fukushi - adverb
副詞 fukushi - adverb
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人称代名詞 ninshou daimeishi - personal pronoun
人称代名詞 ninshou daimeishi - personal pronoun
-
(彼 kare he, 彼ら karera they, あなた anata you, わ (old) wa I)
+
(彼 kare he, 彼ら karera they, 貴方 anata you, わ (old) wa I)
助詞 joshi - particle
助詞 joshi - particle
 +
 +
助数詞 josuushi - [[counter]]
==Different types of verbs==
==Different types of verbs==
自動詞 jidoushi - [[intransitive verb]]
自動詞 jidoushi - [[intransitive verb]]
-
(始まる hajimaru sth. start, 開く aku sth. open)
+
(始まる hajimaru sth. starts, 開く aku sth. opens)
他動詞 tadoushi - [[transitive verb]]
他動詞 tadoushi - [[transitive verb]]
(始める hajimeru to start sth., 開ける akeru to open sth.)
(始める hajimeru to start sth., 開ける akeru to open sth.)
-
可能動詞 kanou doushi - potential verb
+
可能動詞 kanou doushi - [[potential verb]]
(~rareru, ~reru, ~eru, ~reru, 出来る dekiru can, 行かれる ikareru to be able to go, 行ける ikeru can go, 食べられる taberareru to be able to eat, 食べれる (colloq.) tabereru can eat)
(~rareru, ~reru, ~eru, ~reru, 出来る dekiru can, 行かれる ikareru to be able to go, 行ける ikeru can go, 食べられる taberareru to be able to eat, 食べれる (colloq.) tabereru can eat)
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(ず/ぬ negation, つ affirmative, き/し past, む/ん future, 得る eru/uru passive/potenital/honorific, ます polite)
(ず/ぬ negation, つ affirmative, き/し past, む/ん future, 得る eru/uru passive/potenital/honorific, ます polite)
-
指定詞 shiteshi - copula
+
指定詞 shiteishi - copula
(なり である だ です...)
(なり である だ です...)
-
 
+
 
-
 
+
==Inflection==
==Inflection==
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無活用語 mukatsuyougo - uninflected form
無活用語 mukatsuyougo - uninflected form
(nouns, pronouns, conjunctions...)  
(nouns, pronouns, conjunctions...)  
 +
 +
複数形 fukusuukei plural
シク活用 shiki katsuyou - shiku inflection of i-adjectives
シク活用 shiki katsuyou - shiku inflection of i-adjectives
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(する くる くださる ござる いらっしゃる おっしゃる なさる ある だ です いく)
(する くる くださる ござる いらっしゃる おっしゃる なさる ある だ です いく)
-
五段 godan - five row inflecting verb
+
五段(活用動詞) godan (katsuyou doushi) - five row inflecting verb
(modern 四段, 著ろう ikou let's wear)
(modern 四段, 著ろう ikou let's wear)
-
四段 yodan - four row inflecting verb
+
四段(活用動詞) yodan (katsuyou doushi) - four row inflecting verb
上一段 kamiichidan - upper one row inflecting verb
上一段 kamiichidan - upper one row inflecting verb
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The examples below include usages of the verbal form, which is marked in bold.  
The examples below include usages of the verbal form, which is marked in bold.  
   
   
-
未然形 mizenkei - imperfective form
+
[[未然形]] mizenkei - imperfective form
(~a, -ru, '''行か'''ない '''ika'''nai not go, '''消え'''られる '''kie'''rareru to be able to disappear)
(~a, -ru, '''行か'''ない '''ika'''nai not go, '''消え'''られる '''kie'''rareru to be able to disappear)
-
連用形 renyoukei - conjunctive/continuative form
+
[[連用形]] renyoukei - conjunctive/continuative form
(~i, -ru, '''歩き'''やすい '''aruki'''yasui to be easy to walk, '''信じ'''ます '''shinji'''masu to believe (polite))
(~i, -ru, '''歩き'''やすい '''aruki'''yasui to be easy to walk, '''信じ'''ます '''shinji'''masu to believe (polite))
-
連体形 rentaikei - attributative form
+
[[連体形]] rentaikei - attributative form
(~u, ~ru, 死な'''ぬ'''男 shina'''nu''' otoko man who does not die, '''落つる'''石 '''otsuru''' ishi stone that falls)
(~u, ~ru, 死な'''ぬ'''男 shina'''nu''' otoko man who does not die, '''落つる'''石 '''otsuru''' ishi stone that falls)
-
終止形 shuushikei - predicative form
+
[[終止形]] shuushikei - predicative form
(~u, ~uru, ~eru, 九性'''有り''' kyuusei '''ari''' to have nine lives, 勉強'''す''' benkyou '''su''' to do study)
(~u, ~uru, ~eru, 九性'''有り''' kyuusei '''ari''' to have nine lives, 勉強'''す''' benkyou '''su''' to do study)
-
已然形 izenkei (old name) - perfective form  
+
[[已然形]] izenkei (old name) - perfective form  
(~e, ~re, '''読め'''ば '''yome'''ba when I read, 水'''飲め'''ば midzu '''nome'''ba had I drunken water )
(~e, ~re, '''読め'''ば '''yome'''ba when I read, 水'''飲め'''ば midzu '''nome'''ba had I drunken water )
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(same as above 已然形)
(same as above 已然形)
-
命令形 meireikei - commanding form
+
[[命令形]] meireikei - commanding form
(~e, -ru, '''生き'''ろ/よ '''iki'''ro/yo Live!, '''行け''' '''ike''' Go!, '''来い''' '''koi''' Come!)
(~e, -ru, '''生き'''ろ/よ '''iki'''ro/yo Live!, '''行け''' '''ike''' Go!, '''来い''' '''koi''' Come!)
Note that 命令形 refers to both the grammatical inflected form of a verb (生き) and the final commanding form of the verb as used in speech(生きろ/生きよ).
Note that 命令形 refers to both the grammatical inflected form of a verb (生き) and the final commanding form of the verb as used in speech(生きろ/生きよ).
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美化語 bikago - beautified language (御 prefixing, change of vocabulary)
美化語 bikago - beautified language (御 prefixing, change of vocabulary)
-
(御茶 ocha tea, 飯 meshi -> 御飯 gohan cooked rice/meal
+
(御茶 ocha tea, 飯 meshi -> 御飯 gohan cooked rice/meal)
呼捨て yobisute - speech ommitting honorific suffixes
呼捨て yobisute - speech ommitting honorific suffixes
 +
 +
==Kanji==
 +
 +
===Forming Kanji===
 +
 +
形声 keisei - (lit. "form-sound") character formed of meaning-indicating and pronunciation-indicating element, most characters fall under this category
 +
 +
象形 shoukei - (lit. "image-form") pictograph, representing an actual object (日,目,月)
 +
 +
指事 shiji - (lit. "finger-thing") logogramm, using lines and dots to represent and abstract idea (一,二,上,下)
 +
 +
会意 kaii - (lit. "assembled-meaning") combining the meanings of two characters to one character (eg 林,姦)
 +
 +
転注 tenchuu - using the character with an extended meaning (and different pronunciation)
 +
 +
仮借 kasha - (lit. provisionally-borrowing) phonetic loan character, using it for its sound with no respect to its meaning
 +
 +
(Note: The last two are rare.)
 +
 +
===Reading Kanji===
 +
音読 onyomi - Japanese reading
 +
 +
訓読 kunyomi - Chinese reading
 +
 +
呉音 goon - Chinese reading borrowed during the 5th/6th centuries
 +
 +
漢音 kanon - Chinese reading borrowed during the 7th/8th centuries
 +
 +
唐音 touon - Chinese reading borrowed during later centuries
 +
 +
慣用音 kanyouon - "wrong" Chinese reading commonly accepted and used
 +
 +
==Kana==
 +
 +
平仮名 - hiragana  (いろはにほへとちりぬるをわかよたれそつねならむ[ん])
 +
 +
片仮名 - katakana  (ウヰノオクヤマケフコエテアサキユメミシヱヒモセ ス )
 +
 +
振仮名 - furigana  (small kana above or next to kanji indicating pronunciation)
 +
 +
送仮名 - okurigana (kana used for indicating inflection, particles &c.)
 +
 +
万葉仮名 - manyougana (chinese characters used purely phonetically as an early syllabic "alphabet")

Current revision as of 14:00, 17 June 2010


Contents

Parts of speech

名詞 meishi - noun (猫 neko cat, 本 hon book, 飛行機 hikouki plane)

動詞 doushi - verb (食べる taberu to eat, 考える kangaeru to think, 話す hanasu to speak)

形容詞 keiyoushi - i-adjective (青い aoi blue, 可愛い kawaii cute)

形容動詞 keiyoudoushi - na-adjective (きれい kirei beautiful, 歴史的 rekishiteki historical)

副詞 fukushi - adverb (脱兎の如く dattou no gotoku quick[as fast as lightening], 早く hayaku quickly, きれいに kirei ni cleanly, ゆっくり yukkuri slowly)

代名詞 daimeishi -pronoun (私 watashi I, 我が waga my, 此処 koko here, 其れ sore that, ああ aa that way, 誰 dare who, 何処も dokomo everywhere)

人称代名詞 ninshou daimeishi - personal pronoun (彼 kare he, 彼ら karera they, 貴方 anata you, わ (old) wa I)

助詞 joshi - particle

助数詞 josuushi - counter

Different types of verbs

自動詞 jidoushi - intransitive verb (始まる hajimaru sth. starts, 開く aku sth. opens)

他動詞 tadoushi - transitive verb (始める hajimeru to start sth., 開ける akeru to open sth.)

可能動詞 kanou doushi - potential verb (~rareru, ~reru, ~eru, ~reru, 出来る dekiru can, 行かれる ikareru to be able to go, 行ける ikeru can go, 食べられる taberareru to be able to eat, 食べれる (colloq.) tabereru can eat)

状態動詞 joutai doushi - stative verbu

使役 shieki - causative (~seru, ~saseru, ~su (old), ~sasu (old), eg 開かせる 開けさせる 咲かす 食べさす)

受け身 ukemi - passive (~reru or ~rareru, eg 下さられる kudasarareru to be given, 搾られる shiborareru to be squeezed)

助動詞 jodoushi - auxiliary verb (ず/ぬ negation, つ affirmative, き/し past, む/ん future, 得る eru/uru passive/potenital/honorific, ます polite)

指定詞 shiteishi - copula (なり である だ です...)  

Inflection

活用語 katsuyougo - inflected form (verbs, adjectives...)

無活用語 mukatsuyougo - uninflected form (nouns, pronouns, conjunctions...)

複数形 fukusuukei plural

シク活用 shiki katsuyou - shiku inflection of i-adjectives (美味し [終止形] oishi 美味しく oishiku [連用形] delicious )

ク活用 ku katsuyou - ku inflection of i-adjectives (無し nashi [終止形] 無く [連用形] naku [shuushikei] not)

NOTE: The only difference is that shiku inflecting adjectives do not gain an additional し in their 終止形 predicative form.

規則動詞 kisokudoushi - regular verb

不規則動詞 fukisokudoushi - irregular verb (する くる くださる ござる いらっしゃる おっしゃる なさる ある だ です いく)

五段(活用動詞) godan (katsuyou doushi) - five row inflecting verb (modern 四段, 著ろう ikou let's wear)

四段(活用動詞) yodan (katsuyou doushi) - four row inflecting verb

上一段 kamiichidan - upper one row inflecting verb (似る niru to resemble, 見る miru to see ...)

下一段 shimoichidan - lower one row inflecting verb (蹴る keru to kick)

上二段 kaminidan - upper two rows inflecting verb

下二段 shimonidan - lower two rows inflecting verb

ラ変 rahen - ra column irregularly inflecting verb (有り ari to be)

サ変 sahen - sa column irregularly inflecting verb (為 su to do)

ナ変 nahen - na column irregularly inflecting verb (死ぬ shinu to die)

カ変 kahen - ka column irregularly inflecting verb (来 ku to come)

~形 ~kei - ~form  


The examples below include usages of the verbal form, which is marked in bold.

未然形 mizenkei - imperfective form (~a, -ru, 行かない ikanai not go, 消えられる kierareru to be able to disappear)

連用形 renyoukei - conjunctive/continuative form (~i, -ru, 歩きやすい arukiyasui to be easy to walk, 信じます shinjimasu to believe (polite))

連体形 rentaikei - attributative form (~u, ~ru, 死な男 shinanu otoko man who does not die, 落つるotsuru ishi stone that falls)

終止形 shuushikei - predicative form (~u, ~uru, ~eru, 九性有り kyuusei ari to have nine lives, 勉強 benkyou su to do study)

已然形 izenkei (old name) - perfective form (~e, ~re, 読めyomeba when I read, 水飲めば midzu nomeba had I drunken water )

仮定形 kateikei - hypothetical form (same as above 已然形)

命令形 meireikei - commanding form (~e, -ru, 生きろ/よ ikiro/yo Live!, 行け ike Go!, 来い koi Come!) Note that 命令形 refers to both the grammatical inflected form of a verb (生き) and the final commanding form of the verb as used in speech(生きろ/生きよ).

テ形 te kei (1) also te-stem, same as 連用形  (2) て affixed to the 連用形, which may cause sound changes, conjunctive/continuative form (行って来ます ittekimasu Go and come back!、 食べて tabete Please eat!)

マス形 (1) also masu-stem, same as 連用形  (2) ます affixed to the 連用形, polite form

ナイ形 (1) also nai-stem, same as 未然形  (2) 無い affixed to the 未然形, negation, negative form

Politeness

敬語 keigo - polite language, as opposed to neutral language (multiple levels, see below for examples)

丁寧語 teineigo - (simple-,neutral-) polite language (本を買います hon wo kaimasu someone buys a book, 寒いです samui desu it's cold [outside])

謙譲語 kenjougo - humble language (呼び致す yobi itasu to call, 居(お)る oru be/exist)

尊敬語 sonkeigo - honorific language (呼びに成る yobi ni naru to call, 亡く成りに成る naku nari ni naru to die)

美化語 bikago - beautified language (御 prefixing, change of vocabulary) (御茶 ocha tea, 飯 meshi -> 御飯 gohan cooked rice/meal)

呼捨て yobisute - speech ommitting honorific suffixes

Kanji

Forming Kanji

形声 keisei - (lit. "form-sound") character formed of meaning-indicating and pronunciation-indicating element, most characters fall under this category

象形 shoukei - (lit. "image-form") pictograph, representing an actual object (日,目,月)

指事 shiji - (lit. "finger-thing") logogramm, using lines and dots to represent and abstract idea (一,二,上,下)

会意 kaii - (lit. "assembled-meaning") combining the meanings of two characters to one character (eg 林,姦)

転注 tenchuu - using the character with an extended meaning (and different pronunciation)

仮借 kasha - (lit. provisionally-borrowing) phonetic loan character, using it for its sound with no respect to its meaning

(Note: The last two are rare.)

Reading Kanji

音読 onyomi - Japanese reading

訓読 kunyomi - Chinese reading

呉音 goon - Chinese reading borrowed during the 5th/6th centuries

漢音 kanon - Chinese reading borrowed during the 7th/8th centuries

唐音 touon - Chinese reading borrowed during later centuries

慣用音 kanyouon - "wrong" Chinese reading commonly accepted and used

Kana

平仮名 - hiragana (いろはにほへとちりぬるをわかよたれそつねならむ[ん])

片仮名 - katakana (ウヰノオクヤマケフコエテアサキユメミシヱヒモセ ス )

振仮名 - furigana (small kana above or next to kanji indicating pronunciation)

送仮名 - okurigana (kana used for indicating inflection, particles &c.)

万葉仮名 - manyougana (chinese characters used purely phonetically as an early syllabic "alphabet")

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