Grammatical terms

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Parts of speech

名詞 meishi - noun (猫 neko cat, 本 hon book, 飛行機 hikouki plane)

動詞 doushi - verb (食べる taberu to eat, 考える kangaeru to think, 話す hanasu to speak)

形容詞 keiyoushi - adjective (青い aoi blue, かわいい kawaii cute, きれい kirei beautiful)

副詞 fukushi - adverb (脱兎の如く dattou no gotoku quick[as fast as lightening], 早く hayaku quickly, きれいに kirei ni cleanly, ゆっくり yukkuri slowly)

代名詞 daimeishi -pronoun (私 watashi I, 我が waga my, 此処 koko here, 其れ sore that, ああ aa that way, 誰 dare who, 何処も dokomo everywhere)

人称代名詞 ninshou daimeishi - personal pronoun (彼 kare he, 彼ら karera they, あなた anata you, わ (old) wa I)

助詞 joshi - particle

Different types of verbs

自動詞 jidoushi - intransitive verb (始まる hajimaru sth. start, 開く aku sth. open)

他動詞 tadoushi - transitive verb (始める hajimeru to start sth., 開ける akeru to open sth.)

可能動詞 kanou doushi - potential verb (~rareru, ~reru, ~eru, ~reru, 出来る dekiru can, 行かれる ikareru to be able to go, 行ける ikeru can go, 食べられる taberareru to be able to eat, 食べれる (colloq.) tabereru can eat)

状態動詞 joutai doushi - stative verbu

使役 shieki - causative (~seru, ~saseru, ~su (old), ~sasu (old), eg 開かせる 開けさせる 咲かす 食べさす)

受け身 ukemi - passive (~reru or ~rareru, eg 下さられる kudasarareru to be given, 搾られる shiborareru to be squeezed)

助動詞 jodoushi - auxiliary verb (ず/ぬ negation, つ affirmative, き/し past, む/ん future, 得る eru/uru passive/potenital/honorific, ます polite)

指定詞 shiteshi - copula (なり である だ です...)


Inflection

活用語 katsuyougo - inflected form (verbs, adjectives...)

無活用語 mukatsuyougo - uninflected form (nouns, pronouns, conjunctions...)

四段 yodan - four row inflecting verb

上一段 kamiichidan - upper one row inflecting verb

下一段 shimoichidan - lower one row inflecting verb

上二段 kaminidan - upper two rows inflecting verb

下二段 shimonidan - lower two rows inflecting verb

ラ変 rahen - ra column irregularly inflecting verb

サ変 sahen - sa column irregularly inflecting verb

ナ変 nahen - na column irregularly inflecting verb

カ変 kahen - ka column irregularly inflecting verb

~形 ~kei - ~form  

The examples below include usages of the verbal form, which is marked in bold.

未然形 mizenkei - imperfective form (~a, -ru, 行かない ikanai not go, 消えられる kierareru to be able to disappear)

連用形 renyoukei - conjunctive/continuative form (~i, -ru, 歩きやすい arukiyasui to be easy to walk, 信じます shinjimasu to believe (polite))

連体形 rentaikei - attributative form (~u, ~ru, 死な男 shinanu otoko man who does not die, 落つるotsuru ishi stone that falls)

終止形 shuushikei - predicative form (~u, ~uru, ~eru, 九性有り kyuusei ari to have nine lives, 勉強 benkyou su to do study)

已然形 izenkei - perfective form (~e, ~re, 読めyomeba when I read, 水飲めば midzu nomeba had I drunken water )

命令形 meireikei - commanding form (~e, -ru, 生きろ/よ ikiro/yo Live!, 行け ike Go!, 来い koi Come!) Note that 命令形 refers to both the grammatical inflected form of a verb (生き) and the final commanding form of the verb as used in speech(生きろ/生きよ).

テ形 te kei (1) same as 連用形  (2) て affixed to the 連用形, which may cause sound changes, conjunctive/continuative form (行って来ます ittekimasu Go and come back!、 食べて tabete Please eat!)

マス形 (1) same as 連用形  (2) ます affixed to the 連用形, polite form

ナイ形 (1) same as 未然形  (2) 無い affixed to the 未然形, negation, negative form

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