Particles

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[[Category:Grammar]]
[[Category:Grammar]]
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{|border=1
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==は wa==
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This is the topic marker. Used when changing or refreshing topics in conversation
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|
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wa
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|This is the topic marker. Used when changing or refreshing topics in conversation
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わたしは watashi wa - 'I' The 'I' is the big idea of what is being talked about. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'  
わたしは watashi wa - 'I' The 'I' is the big idea of what is being talked about. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'  
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==が ga==
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|
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This is the subject marker. The one doing the action.
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ga
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|This is the subject marker. The one doing the action.
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わたしが watashi ga - 'I' The 'I' is the subject of the action. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'
わたしが watashi ga - 'I' The 'I' is the subject of the action. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'
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==を o==
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This is the direct object marker.The thing acted upon.
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o
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|This is the direct object marker.The thing acted upon.
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コーヒを のみます。kouhi o nomimasu(I) drink coffee.  
コーヒを のみます。kouhi o nomimasu(I) drink coffee.  
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==へ e==
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|
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This is a directional marker. to, toward
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e
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|This is a directional marker. to, toward
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東京へ いきます toukyou he ikimasu(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use に)  
東京へ いきます toukyou he ikimasu(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use に)  
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==に ni==
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This is a multipurpose marker:  
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ni
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|This is a multipurpose marker:  
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# indirect object (receiver) 本を あなたに あげます。hon o anata ni agemasu(I) give you a book.  
# indirect object (receiver) 本を あなたに あげます。hon o anata ni agemasu(I) give you a book.  
# place where something is going to 東京に いきます toukyou ni ikimasu (I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
# place where something is going to 東京に いきます toukyou ni ikimasu (I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
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# in/at a place 東京に すんでいます。toukyou ni sundeimasu (I) live in Tokyo.
# in/at a place 東京に すんでいます。toukyou ni sundeimasu (I) live in Tokyo.
# purpose (to) コーヒに しましょう。kouhi ni shimashou - Let's have coffee.   
# purpose (to) コーヒに しましょう。kouhi ni shimashou - Let's have coffee.   
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==で de==
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This is also a multipurpose marker:
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de
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|This is also a multipurpose marker:
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# by means of くるま で いきましょう。kuruma de ikimashou Let's go by (means of) car.
# by means of くるま で いきましょう。kuruma de ikimashou Let's go by (means of) car.
# place where the action happens いえで  テレビを みます。 ie de terebi o mimasu(I) watch tv at home.
# place where the action happens いえで  テレビを みます。 ie de terebi o mimasu(I) watch tv at home.
# cause, reason たいふうで 木が たおれました。taifuu de ki ga taoremashita - Because of the typhoon, a tree fell.
# cause, reason たいふうで 木が たおれました。taifuu de ki ga taoremashita - Because of the typhoon, a tree fell.
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==から kara==
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* from (a starting point in time or place)  
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|から kara - from (a starting point in time or place)  
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アメリカ から きました。<br>
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|アメリカ から きました。
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amerika kara kimashita. <br>
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amerika kara kimashita.  
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(I) came from America.
(I) came from America.
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==まで made==
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|まで made - until, through, as far as
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* until, through, as far as
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|TIME:
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** TIME:
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私は7時から8時まで日本語を勉強します。
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私は7時から8時まで日本語を勉強します。<br>
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watashi wa shichi ji kara hachi ji made nihongo wo benkyou shimasu.
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watashi wa shichi ji kara hachi ji made nihongo wo benkyou shimasu.<br>
I study Japanese from seven until eight.
I study Japanese from seven until eight.
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|PLACE:
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** PLACE:
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ここから東京まで30分かかりました。
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ここから東京まで30分かかりました。<br>
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koko kara toukyou made sanjuu pun kakarimashita.
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koko kara toukyou made sanjuu pun kakarimashita.<br>
From here to Tokyo, it took 30 minutes.
From here to Tokyo, it took 30 minutes.
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==の no==
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|の no - 's, of (possessive)  
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* 's, of (possessive)  
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私の本です。
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私の本です。<br>
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watashi no hon desu.
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watashi no hon desu.<br>
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(it's) my book.
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(it's) my book.<br>
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|アメリカのフロリダ州から来ました。
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アメリカのフロリダ州から来ました。<br>
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amerika no furorida shuu kara kimashita.
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amerika no furorida shuu kara kimashita.<br>
(I) came from America's Florida state. (I came from Florida, America.)
(I) came from America's Florida state. (I came from Florida, America.)
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==とか toka==
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|とか toka - and, or -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more things and then the list continues)  
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* and, or -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more things and then the list continues)  
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|学校で英語とかフランス語とかドイツ語などを勉強しました。  
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学校で英語とかフランス語とかドイツ語などを勉強しました。 <br>
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gakkou de eigo toka furansu go toka doitsu go nado wo benkyou shimashita.  
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gakkou de eigo toka furansu go toka doitsu go nado wo benkyou shimashita. <br>
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In school, I studied English, and French, and German...
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In school, I studied English, and French, and German...<br>
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|何か飲む? お茶とかコーラとか。。。  
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何か飲む? お茶とかコーラとか。。。 <br>
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nanika nomu? ocha toka kora toka...  
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nanika nomu? ocha toka kora toka... <br>
Wanna drink something?  Tea... or Coke ... or...
Wanna drink something?  Tea... or Coke ... or...
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==や ya==
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|や ya - and -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more nouns and then the list continues)  
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* and -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more nouns and then the list continues)  
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|お茶やコーヒーがあ る。  
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お茶やコーヒーがあ る。 <br>
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ocha ya ko-hi- ga aru.  
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ocha ya ko-hi- ga aru. <br>
(We) have tea and coffee...  
(We) have tea and coffee...  
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==も mo==
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|も mo - also, too  
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*also, too  
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|私も熊のプーさんが好き。  
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私も熊のプーさんが好き。 <br>
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watashi mo kuma no pu-san ga suki.  
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watashi mo kuma no pu-san ga suki. <br>
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I like Winnie the Pooh too!   
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I like Winnie the Pooh too!  <br>
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|ドイツ語も話せる。  
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ドイツ語も話せる。 <br>
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doitsu go mo hanaseru.  
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doitsu go mo hanaseru. <br>
I can also speak German.
I can also speak German.
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==が ga==
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|が ga - but  
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*but  
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|熊のプーさんが 好きですが どらえもんは あまり 好き じゃない。  
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熊のプーさんが 好きですが どらえもんは あまり 好き じゃない。 <br>
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kuma no pu-san ga suki desu ga,  Doraemon wa amari suki ja nai.  
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kuma no pu-san ga suki desu ga,  Doraemon wa amari suki ja nai. <br>
I like Winnie the Pooh but I don't like Doraemon too much.   
I like Winnie the Pooh but I don't like Doraemon too much.   
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NOTE: The first ga in the above example is the subject marker
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NOTE: The first ga in the above example is the subject marker
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|毎日練習しますが。。。  
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毎日練習しますが。。。 <br>
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mainichi renshuu shimasu ga...  
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mainichi renshuu shimasu ga... <br>
Everyday I practice but...
Everyday I practice but...
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|けれども kere domo - although, though  
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==けれども keredomo==
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(Also かれど, けど)
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|でも demo - but  
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* although, though  
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==でも demo==
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|しかし shikashi - but, however
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* but  
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==しかし shikashi==
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* but, however

Revision as of 08:20, 6 August 2006


Contents

は wa

This is the topic marker. Used when changing or refreshing topics in conversation わたしは watashi wa - 'I' The 'I' is the big idea of what is being talked about. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'

が ga

This is the subject marker. The one doing the action. わたしが watashi ga - 'I' The 'I' is the subject of the action. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'

を o

This is the direct object marker.The thing acted upon. コーヒを のみます。kouhi o nomimasu(I) drink coffee.

へ e

This is a directional marker. to, toward 東京へ いきます toukyou he ikimasu(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use に)

に ni

This is a multipurpose marker:

  1. indirect object (receiver) 本を あなたに あげます。hon o anata ni agemasu(I) give you a book.
  2. place where something is going to 東京に いきます toukyou ni ikimasu (I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
  3. time (at, in) 7時に しゅっぱつ。shichi ji ni shuppatsu(I) will leave at 7.
  4. in/at a place 東京に すんでいます。toukyou ni sundeimasu (I) live in Tokyo.
  5. purpose (to) コーヒに しましょう。kouhi ni shimashou - Let's have coffee.

で de

This is also a multipurpose marker:

  1. by means of くるま で いきましょう。kuruma de ikimashou Let's go by (means of) car.
  2. place where the action happens いえで テレビを みます。 ie de terebi o mimasu(I) watch tv at home.
  3. cause, reason たいふうで 木が たおれました。taifuu de ki ga taoremashita - Because of the typhoon, a tree fell.

から kara

  • from (a starting point in time or place)

アメリカ から きました。
amerika kara kimashita.
(I) came from America.

まで made

  • until, through, as far as
    • TIME:

私は7時から8時まで日本語を勉強します。
watashi wa shichi ji kara hachi ji made nihongo wo benkyou shimasu.
I study Japanese from seven until eight.

    • PLACE:

ここから東京まで30分かかりました。
koko kara toukyou made sanjuu pun kakarimashita.
From here to Tokyo, it took 30 minutes.

の no

  • 's, of (possessive)

私の本です。
watashi no hon desu.
(it's) my book.
アメリカのフロリダ州から来ました。
amerika no furorida shuu kara kimashita.
(I) came from America's Florida state. (I came from Florida, America.)

とか toka

  • and, or -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more things and then the list continues)

学校で英語とかフランス語とかドイツ語などを勉強しました。
gakkou de eigo toka furansu go toka doitsu go nado wo benkyou shimashita.
In school, I studied English, and French, and German...
何か飲む? お茶とかコーラとか。。。
nanika nomu? ocha toka kora toka...
Wanna drink something? Tea... or Coke ... or...

や ya

  • and -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more nouns and then the list continues)

お茶やコーヒーがあ る。
ocha ya ko-hi- ga aru.
(We) have tea and coffee...

も mo

  • also, too

私も熊のプーさんが好き。
watashi mo kuma no pu-san ga suki.
I like Winnie the Pooh too!
ドイツ語も話せる。
doitsu go mo hanaseru.
I can also speak German.

が ga

  • but

熊のプーさんが 好きですが どらえもんは あまり 好き じゃない。
kuma no pu-san ga suki desu ga, Doraemon wa amari suki ja nai.
I like Winnie the Pooh but I don't like Doraemon too much.

NOTE: The first ga in the above example is the subject marker

毎日練習しますが。。。
mainichi renshuu shimasu ga...
Everyday I practice but...

けれども keredomo

(Also かれど, けど)

  • although, though

でも demo

  • but

しかし shikashi

  • but, however
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