Particles

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==に ni==
==に ni==
This is a multipurpose marker:  
This is a multipurpose marker:  
-
# indirect object (receiver) 本を あなたに あげます。hon o anata ni agemasu(I) give you a book.  
+
# indirect object (receiver)<br>本をあなたにあげます。<br>hon o anata ni agemasu<br>(I) give you a book.  
-
# place where something is going to 東京に いきます toukyou ni ikimasu (I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
+
# place where something is going to 東京にいきます。<br>toukyou ni ikimasu<br>(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
-
# time (at, in) 7時に  しゅっぱつ。shichi ji ni shuppatsu(I) will leave at 7.
+
# time (at, in)<br>7時にしゅっぱつ。<br>shichi ji ni shuppatsu<br>(I) will leave at 7.
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# in/at a place 東京に すんでいます。toukyou ni sundeimasu (I) live in Tokyo.
+
# in/at a place<br>東京にすんでいます。<br>toukyou ni sundeimasu<br>(I) live in Tokyo.
-
# purpose (to) コーヒに しましょう。kouhi ni shimashou - Let's have coffee.
+
# purpose (to) コーヒにしましょう。<br>kouhi ni shimashou<br>Let's have coffee.
 +
 
==で de==
==で de==
This is also a multipurpose marker:
This is also a multipurpose marker:

Revision as of 08:24, 6 August 2006


Contents

は wa

This is the topic marker. Used when changing or refreshing topics in conversation

わたしは watashi wa - 'I' The 'I' is the big idea of what is being talked about. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'

が ga

This is the subject marker. The one doing the action. わたしが watashi ga - 'I' The 'I' is the subject of the action. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'

を o

This is the direct object marker. The thing acted upon.
コーヒを のみます。
kouhi o nomimasu
(I) drink coffee.

へ e

This is a directional marker. to, toward
東京へいきます。
toukyou e ikimasu
(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use に)

に ni

This is a multipurpose marker:

  1. indirect object (receiver)
    本をあなたにあげます。
    hon o anata ni agemasu
    (I) give you a book.
  2. place where something is going to 東京にいきます。
    toukyou ni ikimasu
    (I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
  3. time (at, in)
    7時にしゅっぱつ。
    shichi ji ni shuppatsu
    (I) will leave at 7.
  4. in/at a place
    東京にすんでいます。
    toukyou ni sundeimasu
    (I) live in Tokyo.
  5. purpose (to) コーヒにしましょう。
    kouhi ni shimashou
    Let's have coffee.

で de

This is also a multipurpose marker:

  1. by means of くるま で いきましょう。kuruma de ikimashou Let's go by (means of) car.
  2. place where the action happens いえで テレビを みます。 ie de terebi o mimasu(I) watch tv at home.
  3. cause, reason たいふうで 木が たおれました。taifuu de ki ga taoremashita - Because of the typhoon, a tree fell.

から kara

  • from (a starting point in time or place)

アメリカ から きました。
amerika kara kimashita.
(I) came from America.

まで made

  • until, through, as far as
    • TIME:

私は7時から8時まで日本語を勉強します。
watashi wa shichi ji kara hachi ji made nihongo wo benkyou shimasu.
I study Japanese from seven until eight.

    • PLACE:

ここから東京まで30分かかりました。
koko kara toukyou made sanjuu pun kakarimashita.
From here to Tokyo, it took 30 minutes.

の no

  • 's, of (possessive)

私の本です。
watashi no hon desu.
(it's) my book.
アメリカのフロリダ州から来ました。
amerika no furorida shuu kara kimashita.
(I) came from America's Florida state. (I came from Florida, America.)

とか toka

  • and, or -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more things and then the list continues)

学校で英語とかフランス語とかドイツ語などを勉強しました。
gakkou de eigo toka furansu go toka doitsu go nado wo benkyou shimashita.
In school, I studied English, and French, and German...
何か飲む? お茶とかコーラとか。。。
nanika nomu? ocha toka kora toka...
Wanna drink something? Tea... or Coke ... or...

や ya

  • and -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more nouns and then the list continues)

お茶やコーヒーがあ る。
ocha ya ko-hi- ga aru.
(We) have tea and coffee...

も mo

  • also, too

私も熊のプーさんが好き。
watashi mo kuma no pu-san ga suki.
I like Winnie the Pooh too!
ドイツ語も話せる。
doitsu go mo hanaseru.
I can also speak German.

が ga

  • but

熊のプーさんが 好きですが どらえもんは あまり 好き じゃない。
kuma no pu-san ga suki desu ga, Doraemon wa amari suki ja nai.
I like Winnie the Pooh but I don't like Doraemon too much.

NOTE: The first ga in the above example is the subject marker

毎日練習しますが。。。
mainichi renshuu shimasu ga...
Everyday I practice but...

けれども keredomo

(Also かれど, けど)

  • although, though

でも demo

  • but

しかし shikashi

  • but, however
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