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For more detailed information, see the [[|"grammar pages"]].
For more detailed information, see the [[Grammar_page_2#Particles_intro|grammar pages]].

Revision as of 07:36, 19 August 2006


は wa

This is the topic marker. Used when changing or refreshing topics in conversation

わたしは watashi wa - 'I' The 'I' is the big idea of what is being talked about. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'

が ga

This is the subject marker. The one doing the action. わたしが watashi ga - 'I' The 'I' is the subject of the action. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'

を o

This is the direct object marker. The thing acted upon.
コーヒを のみます。
kouhi o nomimasu
(I) drink coffee.

へ e

This is a directional marker. to, toward
toukyou e ikimasu
(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use に)

に ni

This is a multipurpose marker:

  1. indirect object (receiver)
    hon o anata ni agemasu
    (I) give you a book.
  2. place where something is going to 東京にいきます。
    toukyou ni ikimasu
    (I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
  3. time (at, in)
    shichi ji ni shuppatsu
    (I) will leave at 7.
  4. in/at a place
    toukyou ni sundeimasu
    (I) live in Tokyo.
  5. purpose (to) コーヒにしましょう。
    kouhi ni shimashou
    Let's have coffee.

で de

This is also a multipurpose marker:

  1. by means of
    Let's go by (means of) car.
  2. place where the action happens
    ie de terebi o mimasu
    (I) watch tv at home.
  3. cause, reason
    taifuu de ki ga taoremashita
    Because of the typhoon, a tree fell.

から kara

  • from (a starting point in time or place)

amerika kara kimashita.
(I) came from America.

と to

1. a conjunction simllar to "and"

orenji to ringo to meron ga suki desu.
I like oranges, apples and melons

2. Used to mean "with"

sensei to hanashitai desu ka.
Would you like to talk with the teacher?

3. A conditional

kono shanpu- o kau to heaburashu ga tsuitekimasu.
This shampoo comes with a hair brush. (Lit. If you buy this shampoo it comes with a hair brush.)

まで made

  • until, through, as far as
  • TIME:

watashi wa shichi ji kara hachi ji made nihongo wo benkyou shimasu.
I study Japanese from seven until eight.

  • PLACE:

koko kara toukyou made sanjuppun kakarimashita.
From here to Tokyo, it took 30 minutes.

の no

  • 's, of (possessive)

watashi no hon desu.
(it's) my book.
amerika no furorida shuu kara kimashita.
(I) came from America's Florida state. (I came from Florida, America.)

とか toka

  • and, or -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more things and then the list continues)

gakkou de eigo toka furansu go toka doitsu go nado wo benkyou shimashita.
In school, I studied English, and French, and German...
何か飲む? お茶とかコーラとか。。。
nanika nomu? ocha toka kora toka...
Wanna drink something? Tea... or Coke ... or...

や ya

  • and -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more nouns and then the list continues)

お茶やコーヒーがあ る。
ocha ya ko-hi- ga aru.
(We) have tea and coffee...

も mo

  • also, too

watashi mo kuma no pu-san ga suki.
I like Winnie the Pooh too!
doitsu go mo hanaseru.
I can also speak German.

が ga

  • but

熊のプーさんが 好きですが どらえもんは あまり 好き じゃない。
kuma no pu-san ga suki desu ga, Doraemon wa amari suki ja nai.
I like Winnie the Pooh but I don't like Doraemon too much.

NOTE: The first ga in the above example is the subject marker

mainichi renshuu shimasu ga...
Everyday I practice but...

けれども keredomo

(Also けれど, けど)

  • although, though

でも demo

  • but

しかし shikashi

  • but, however

For more detailed information, see the grammar pages.

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