Particles

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[[Category:Grammar]]
[[Category:Grammar]]
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==は wa==
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|-
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This is the topic marker. Used when changing or refreshing topics in conversation
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|
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-
wa
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わたしは watashi wa - 'I' The 'I' is the big idea of what is being talked about. Always translated as 'I', never 'me.'
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|This is the topic marker. Used when changing or refreshing topics in conversation
+
 
-
わたしは watashi wa - 'I' The 'I' is the big idea of what is being talked about. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'  
+
==が ga==
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|-
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Its main function is marking the subject. The one doing the action. Its usages include:
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|
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ga
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#subject marker<br>私が<br>watashi ga<br>'I' The 'I' is the subject of the action. Always translated as 'I', never 'me.'
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|This is the subject marker. The one doing the action.
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#weak contrastive / "but"<br>済みませんが、今何時ですか<br>sumimasen ga, ima nanji desu ka<br>Excuse me, but what time is it?
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わたしが watashi ga - 'I' The 'I' is the subject of the action. Always translated as 'I' never 'me.'
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#classical genitive marker<br>我が二人寝し / あがせ(Kojiki)<br>waga futari neshi / a ga se<br>We two slept together. / my lover
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|-
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|を
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==を o==
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o
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1. This is the direct object marker. The thing acted upon.<br>
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|This is the direct object marker.The thing acted upon.
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-
コーヒを のみます。kouhi o nomimasu(I) drink coffee.  
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・コーヒを のみます。<br>
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|-
+
kouhi o nomimasu<br>
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|へ
+
(I) drink coffee.<br>
-
e
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・コーヒーのおかわりを下さい。<br>
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|This is a directional marker. to, toward
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kouhii no okawari o kudasai<br>
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東京へ いきます toukyou he ikimasu(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use に)  
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Please give me onther cup of cofee. <br>
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|-
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・左手を上げなさい。<br>
-
|
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hidarite o agenasai<br>
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ni
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<br>
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|This is a multipurpose marker:  
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・これを三つください。<br>
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# indirect object (receiver) 本を あなたに あげます。hon o anata ni agemasu(I) give you a book.  
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kore o mittsu kudasai<br>
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# place where something is going to 東京に いきます toukyou ni ikimasu (I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
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<br>
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# time (at, in) 7時に  しゅっぱつ。shichi ji ni shuppatsu(I) will leave at 7.
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・3 に2 を足すと5 になる。<br>
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# in/at a place 東京に すんでいます。toukyou ni sundeimasu (I) live in Tokyo.
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san ni ni o tasuto go ni naru<br>
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# purpose (to) コーヒに しましょう。kouhi ni shimashou - Let's have coffee.
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<br>
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|-
+
音をたてるな。<br>
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|
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oto o tateruna<br>
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de
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<br>
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|This is also a multipurpose marker:
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・このバケツに水を入れて下さい。<br>
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# by means of くるま で いきましょう。kuruma de ikimashou Let's go by (means of) car.
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kono baketsu ni mizu o irete kudasai<br>
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# place where the action happens いえで  テレビを みます。 ie de terebi o mimasu(I) watch tv at home.
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<br>
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# cause, reason たいふうで 木が たおれました。taifuu de ki ga taoremashita - Because of the typhoon, a tree fell.
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・ケンがろうそくに火をつけた。 <br>
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|}
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Ken ga rousoku ni hi o tusketa<br>
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<br>
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|-
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|から kara - from (a starting point in time or place)  
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2. archaic exclamatory particle<br>ここ に ちかく を きなきて よ (Manyoshu)<br>come and sing, Oh! close to here
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|アメリカ から きました。
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-
amerika kara kimashita.  
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==へ e==
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(I) came from America.
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This is a directional marker. to, toward<br>
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|-
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東京へいきます。<br>
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|まで made - until, through, as far as
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toukyou e ikimasu<br>
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|TIME:
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(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use に)
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私は7時から8時まで日本語を勉強します。
+
 
-
watashi wa shichi ji kara hachi ji made nihongo wo benkyou shimasu.
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==に ni==
-
I study Japanese from seven until eight.
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This is a multipurpose marker:  
-
|PLACE:
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# indirect object (receiver)<br>本をあなたにあげます。<br>hon o anata ni agemasu<br>(I) give you a book.  
-
ここから東京まで30分かかりました。
+
# place where something is going to 東京にいきます。<br>toukyou ni ikimasu<br>(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
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koko kara toukyou made sanjuu pun kakarimashita.
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# time (at, in)<br>7時にしゅっぱつ。<br>shichi ji ni shuppatsu<br>(I) will leave at 7.
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From here to Tokyo, it took 30 minutes.
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# in/at a place<br>東京にすんでいます。<br>toukyou ni sundeimasu<br>(I) live in Tokyo.
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|-  
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# purpose (to) コーヒにしましょう。<br>kouhi ni shimashou<br>Let's have coffee.
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|の no - 's, of (possessive)  
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-
私の本です。
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==で de==
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watashi no hon desu.
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This is also a multipurpose marker:
-
(it's) my book.
+
# by means of <br>くるまでいきましょう。<br>kuruma de ikimashou<br>Let's go by (means of) car.
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|アメリカのフロリダ州から来ました。
+
# place where the action happens <br>家でテレビを見ます。<br>ie de terebi o mimasu<br>(I) watch tv at home.
-
amerika no furorida shuu kara kimashita.
+
# cause, reason<br>たいふうで木がたおれました。<br>taifuu de ki ga taoremashita<br>Because of the typhoon, a tree fell.
 +
# negation, in certain dialects<br>ドイツ国に行かで<br>doitu koku ni yukade.<br>Not go to Germany.
 +
[http://thejapanesepage.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=34&t=9453#p110958 See this post]
 +
 
 +
==から kara==
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* the opposite of まで
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* from (a starting point in time or place or reason):
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#Space<br>アメリカから来ました。<br>amerika kara kimashita. <br>(I) came from America.
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#Time<br>家へ帰ってから御風呂に入ります。<br>uchi e kaette kara ofuro ni hairimasu.<br>(I) take a bath after returning home.
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#Reason<br>とても高いですから買いません。<br>totemo takai desu kara kaimasen deshita.<br>I do not buy it because it is so expensive.
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 +
==まで made==
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* the opposite of から
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* until, through, as far as, end point (in space, time or reason)
 +
 
 +
#Space<br>此処から東京まで30分掛かりました。<br>koko kara toukyou made sanjuppun kakarimashita.<br>From here to Tokyo, it took 30 minutes.
 +
#Time私は7時から8時まで日本語を勉強します。<br>watashi wa shichi ji kara hachi ji made nihongo wo benkyou shimasu.<br>I study Japanese from seven until eight.
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#Reason<br>そこまでする必要はない<br>soko made suru hitsuyou ha nai<br>There is no need do go this far. (meaning "Resort to doing something like this.")
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==と to==
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#a conjunction simllar to "and" and linking nouns<br>オレンジと林檎とメロンが好きです。<br>orenji to ringo to meron ga suki desu.<br>I like oranges, apples and melons.
 +
#open "and" list of nouns, used to mean "with"<br>先生と話したいですか。<br>sensei to hanashitai desu ka.<br>Would you like to talk with the teacher?
 +
#logical implication, natural consequence<br>このシャンプーを買うとヘアブラシがついてきます。<br>kono shanpu- o kau to heaburashu ga tsuitekimasu.<br>This shampoo comes with a hair brush. (Lit. [Buying this shampoo.] and [A hairbrush comes along.])
 +
#quoting particle<br>「分かりませんか」と先生が聞きました<br>wakarimasenka to sensei ga kikimashita<br>"You did not understand?", asked the teacher.
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 +
==の no==
 +
* 's, of (possessive)  
 +
私の本です。<br>
 +
watashi no hon desu.<br>
 +
(it's) my book.<br>
 +
アメリカのフロリダ州から来ました。<br>
 +
amerika no furorida shuu kara kimashita.<br>
(I) came from America's Florida state. (I came from Florida, America.)
(I) came from America's Florida state. (I came from Florida, America.)
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|-
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==とか toka==
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|とか toka - and, or -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more things and then the list continues)  
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* and, or -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more things and then the list continues)  
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|学校で英語とかフランス語とかドイツ語などを勉強しました。  
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学校で英語とかフランス語とかドイツ語などを勉強しました。 <br>
-
gakkou de eigo toka furansu go toka doitsu go nado wo benkyou shimashita.  
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gakkou de eigo toka furansu go toka doitsu go nado wo benkyou shimashita. <br>
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In school, I studied English, and French, and German...
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In school, I studied English, and French, and German...<br>
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|何か飲む? お茶とかコーラとか。。。
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何か飲む? お茶とかコーラとか・・・ <br>
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nanika nomu? ocha toka kora toka...  
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nanika nomu? ocha toka kora toka... <br>
Wanna drink something?  Tea... or Coke ... or...
Wanna drink something?  Tea... or Coke ... or...
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|-
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|や ya - and -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more nouns and then the list continues)  
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==や ya==
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|お茶やコーヒーがあ る。  
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* and -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more nouns and then the list continues)  
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ocha ya ko-hi- ga aru.  
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お茶やコーヒーがあ る。 <br>
 +
ocha ya ko-hi- ga aru. <br>
(We) have tea and coffee...  
(We) have tea and coffee...  
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|-
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==も mo==
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|も mo - also, too  
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*also, too  
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|私も熊のプーさんが好き。  
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私も熊のプーさんが好き。 <br>
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watashi mo kuma no pu-san ga suki.  
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watashi mo kuma no pu-san ga suki. <br>
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I like Winnie the Pooh too!   
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I like Winnie the Pooh too!  <br>
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|ドイツ語も話せる。  
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ドイツ語も話せる。 <br>
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doitsu go mo hanaseru.  
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doitsu go mo hanaseru. <br>
I can also speak German.
I can also speak German.
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|-
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==けれども keredomo==
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|が ga - but
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(Also けれど, けど)
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|熊のプーさんが 好きですが どらえもんは あまり 好き じゃない。
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* although, though
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kuma no pu-san ga suki desu ga, Doraemon wa amari suki ja nai.
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I like Winnie the Pooh but I don't like Doraemon too much. 
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==でも demo==
 +
* but  
 +
==しかし shikashi==
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* but, however
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NOTE: The first ga in the above example is the subject marker
 
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|毎日練習しますが。。。
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For more detailed information, see the [[Grammar_page_2#Particles_intro|grammar pages]].
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mainichi renshuu shimasu ga...
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Everyday I practice but...
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|-
+
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|けれども kere domo - although, though
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-
|-
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|でも demo - but
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|-
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|しかし shikashi - but, however
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|}
+

Current revision as of 19:04, 14 May 2010


Contents

は wa

This is the topic marker. Used when changing or refreshing topics in conversation

わたしは watashi wa - 'I' The 'I' is the big idea of what is being talked about. Always translated as 'I', never 'me.'

が ga

Its main function is marking the subject. The one doing the action. Its usages include:

  1. subject marker
    私が
    watashi ga
    'I' The 'I' is the subject of the action. Always translated as 'I', never 'me.'
  2. weak contrastive / "but"
    済みませんが、今何時ですか
    sumimasen ga, ima nanji desu ka
    Excuse me, but what time is it?
  3. classical genitive marker
    我が二人寝し / あがせ(Kojiki)
    waga futari neshi / a ga se
    We two slept together. / my lover

を o

1. This is the direct object marker. The thing acted upon.

・コーヒを のみます。
kouhi o nomimasu
(I) drink coffee.
・コーヒーのおかわりを下さい。
kouhii no okawari o kudasai
Please give me onther cup of cofee.
・左手を上げなさい。
hidarite o agenasai

・これを三つください。
kore o mittsu kudasai

・3 に2 を足すと5 になる。
san ni ni o tasuto go ni naru

音をたてるな。
oto o tateruna

・このバケツに水を入れて下さい。
kono baketsu ni mizu o irete kudasai

・ケンがろうそくに火をつけた。
Ken ga rousoku ni hi o tusketa

2. archaic exclamatory particle
ここ に ちかく を きなきて よ (Manyoshu)
come and sing, Oh! close to here

へ e

This is a directional marker. to, toward
東京へいきます。
toukyou e ikimasu
(I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use に)

に ni

This is a multipurpose marker:

  1. indirect object (receiver)
    本をあなたにあげます。
    hon o anata ni agemasu
    (I) give you a book.
  2. place where something is going to 東京にいきます。
    toukyou ni ikimasu
    (I) am going to Tokyo. (can also use へ)
  3. time (at, in)
    7時にしゅっぱつ。
    shichi ji ni shuppatsu
    (I) will leave at 7.
  4. in/at a place
    東京にすんでいます。
    toukyou ni sundeimasu
    (I) live in Tokyo.
  5. purpose (to) コーヒにしましょう。
    kouhi ni shimashou
    Let's have coffee.

で de

This is also a multipurpose marker:

  1. by means of
    くるまでいきましょう。
    kuruma de ikimashou
    Let's go by (means of) car.
  2. place where the action happens
    家でテレビを見ます。
    ie de terebi o mimasu
    (I) watch tv at home.
  3. cause, reason
    たいふうで木がたおれました。
    taifuu de ki ga taoremashita
    Because of the typhoon, a tree fell.
  4. negation, in certain dialects
    ドイツ国に行かで
    doitu koku ni yukade.
    Not go to Germany.

See this post

から kara

  • the opposite of まで
  • from (a starting point in time or place or reason):
  1. Space
    アメリカから来ました。
    amerika kara kimashita.
    (I) came from America.
  2. Time
    家へ帰ってから御風呂に入ります。
    uchi e kaette kara ofuro ni hairimasu.
    (I) take a bath after returning home.
  3. Reason
    とても高いですから買いません。
    totemo takai desu kara kaimasen deshita.
    I do not buy it because it is so expensive.

まで made

  • the opposite of から
  • until, through, as far as, end point (in space, time or reason)
  1. Space
    此処から東京まで30分掛かりました。
    koko kara toukyou made sanjuppun kakarimashita.
    From here to Tokyo, it took 30 minutes.
  2. Time私は7時から8時まで日本語を勉強します。
    watashi wa shichi ji kara hachi ji made nihongo wo benkyou shimasu.
    I study Japanese from seven until eight.
  3. Reason
    そこまでする必要はない
    soko made suru hitsuyou ha nai
    There is no need do go this far. (meaning "Resort to doing something like this.")

と to

  1. a conjunction simllar to "and" and linking nouns
    オレンジと林檎とメロンが好きです。
    orenji to ringo to meron ga suki desu.
    I like oranges, apples and melons.
  2. open "and" list of nouns, used to mean "with"
    先生と話したいですか。
    sensei to hanashitai desu ka.
    Would you like to talk with the teacher?
  3. logical implication, natural consequence
    このシャンプーを買うとヘアブラシがついてきます。
    kono shanpu- o kau to heaburashu ga tsuitekimasu.
    This shampoo comes with a hair brush. (Lit. [Buying this shampoo.] and [A hairbrush comes along.])
  4. quoting particle
    「分かりませんか」と先生が聞きました
    wakarimasenka to sensei ga kikimashita
    "You did not understand?", asked the teacher.

の no

  • 's, of (possessive)

私の本です。
watashi no hon desu.
(it's) my book.
アメリカのフロリダ州から来ました。
amerika no furorida shuu kara kimashita.
(I) came from America's Florida state. (I came from Florida, America.)

とか toka

  • and, or -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more things and then the list continues)

学校で英語とかフランス語とかドイツ語などを勉強しました。
gakkou de eigo toka furansu go toka doitsu go nado wo benkyou shimashita.
In school, I studied English, and French, and German...
何か飲む? お茶とかコーラとか・・・
nanika nomu? ocha toka kora toka...
Wanna drink something? Tea... or Coke ... or...

や ya

  • and -> etc. (used in lists of 2 or more nouns and then the list continues)

お茶やコーヒーがあ る。
ocha ya ko-hi- ga aru.
(We) have tea and coffee...

も mo

  • also, too

私も熊のプーさんが好き。
watashi mo kuma no pu-san ga suki.
I like Winnie the Pooh too!
ドイツ語も話せる。
doitsu go mo hanaseru.
I can also speak German.

けれども keredomo

(Also けれど, けど)

  • although, though

でも demo

  • but

しかし shikashi

  • but, however


For more detailed information, see the grammar pages.

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