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In colloquial use, some particles are often omitted. Even there are some cases that dropping a particle is more natural than using a particle. On the other hand, you cannot drop a particle in some cases.
A sentence omitted a particle is called 無助詞文(むじょし ぶん). And φ is used as a symbol for a omitted particle.

There is an analysis that people live in Kansai and Tohoku regions use more 無助詞 than people in other regions.

Besides region, frequency of 無助詞 usage depends on some factors.
- An ages/generations of the speaker,
- A relationship between the speaker and the listener,
- the formality of the conversations,

Following examples are common cases.


Omission cases

The particle は/が (at the beginning of a sentence.)



あたし (φ は) イタリア語の勉強始めたの。(Girl's speech)
I began to study Italian.

In a simple sentence, は after the noun( first-person) is mostly omitted when a speaker mentions her/his self.

森本: 鈴木さん (φ は/が)、アメリカに転勤だって。
Morimoto : (I've heard )Suzuki-san is getting transferred to America. (?)
田中: ホント? 鈴木さん (φ は)、2年前にアメリカから帰国したばかりだよね。
Tanaka : Really? S/He've returned from US only two years ago, right ? (?)

父:安倍首相 ( φ が)、 辞めちゃったね。
Father:The prime minister Abe have resigned his post, you know. (?)
母:驚いたわね。 安倍さんは、もっと我慢強いと思ったけど。
Mother : I've got surprised. I thought Mr.Abe has more patience. (?)
息子:オレ (φ は ) そんなのどっちでもいいよ。
Mike : I don't care such a thing. (?)

ジュン: ヒデキ (φ は) 、ミホのことが好きみたいだよ。
Jun: Hideki seems to love you. (?)
ミホ: そうかなぁ。ヒデキはみんなにやさしいから。
Miho : I don't know. Hideki is just kind to everyone.(?)

The particle を

In a daily conversation, Japanese people rather use a simple sentence in which the particle を is omitted.

Yamada-san gives Morimoto-san a home-coming gift, a local special food.
山田: どうぞ、これ ( φを) 召し上がってください。
Yamada : Please  ???
森本(♀): あら。わざわざありがとうございます。 これ (φ は)、大好物なんです。 
Morimoto : Oh, it's very kind of you. This is my favorite. (?)

ミホ : ねえ、昨日のワールドカップの決勝戦 (φ を) 、観た?
Miho : Hey, did you watch the final game of the World Cup, yesterday? (?)
ヒデキ : うん。夜中の4時までテレビ (φを) 観ちゃったよ。
Hideki : Yeah, I'd watched TV until 4 o'clock in the morning.(?)

The particle へ/に as a direction marker.

1) ヒデキ :ミホ(φは)、夏休みにどこ(φへ/に)行くんだって?
Hideki: Do you know where does Miho go to trip in this summer vacation? (?)
ジュン:フランス(φに/へ) 行くんだって。うらやましいね。
Jun : I've heard she is going to France. Envy her. 

necessary cases

The particle が

Example が in interrogative sentence can not be omitted.

1) が after 誰
Who is going to attend tomorrow's meeting? (?)
× 明日の会議、誰φ 出るの?
× 誰φ 明日の会議に出るの?

2) が after いつ
When is convenient to go to see a movie ? (?)
× 映画に行くのいつφいい?

「いつ映画に行くのがいい? 」is used because some time-expression nouns are used like an adverb. In this case, particle is not needed. Related thread.
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