User talk:Infidel

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Notes

I'm just sticking random notes here for later reference. Good stuff from the forums that indicates either stuff not found in textbooks, or more advanced concepts that are giving me trouble.

Keigo

From Shin1ro San

In my head, from the highest rank of politeness to the lower.

お金を貸していただけないでしょうか? - very polite
お金を貸していただけませんか? - very polite
お金を貸していただきたいのですが。 - very polite
お金を貸していただけますか? - very polite, rather direct
お金を貸してもらえないでしょうか? - polite
お金を貸してもらえませんか? - polite
お金を貸してもらいたいのですが。 - polite, rather direct
お金を貸してもらえますか? - polite, rather direct
お金を貸してくれないでしょうか? - polite
お金を貸してくれませんか? - neutral, rather direct
お金を貸してほしいのですが。 - neutral, rather direct
お金を貸してくれますか? - neutral, direct
お金貸してもらえないかな? - casual
お金貸してもらえるかな? - casual, rather direct
お金貸してもらえる? - casual, rather direct
お金貸してくれないかな? - casual
お金貸してくれるかな? - casual, rather direct
お金貸してくれる? - casual, rather direct
お金貸してほしいんだけど。 - casual, neutral
お金貸して - casual, most direct!
金を貸せ。 - rude, almost theatening
金を出せ - criminal robbery

just joking :-P

Comparisons

From Oyaji

したほうがいい is not past tense.
"You should have" would be 「したほうがよかった」
行った方がいいですか "Should I go?"
行った方がよかったですか "Should I have gone?"
行く方がいいですか "Is going better?"

Wa/Ga

From Paul

Hmm, exceptions ... well は always works for the whole sentence so if your が 
is in a subclause then it can't be replaced with は. 
猫がすきな妹がいます。I have a sister who likes cats.
猫はすきな妹がいます。(The) Cat has a sister it likes.

Na

Here's another example of な with a phrase

「見た目は悪くないがちょっと軽薄そう」な外見とは裏腹に、彼女はいないし、女性に手が早いワケでもない。
"In contrast to his ""Not bad looks but seems a bit of a dandy"" appearance he didn't have a girlfriend and he wasn't particularly fast with the ladies."

Paul b

You ni

From Keatanotron

Usually we use [adverb form of adjective] or [nouns + に] plus [なる] to say something became something else... But how do you do that with verbs? Verbs don't have an adverb form, and you can't put に on the end of them.

In that type of situation, we use よう after the verbs to create a bridge that can be なるed It doesn't have anything to do with time.

I can't think of how to explain why we use よう like this. That's just how it's done!

Examples!
 Adjective:
 赤くなった - It turned red
 Noun:
 大学生になった - I became a college student
 Verb:
 分かるようになった - It became that I understood ("I came to understand")
 できるようになった - It became that I could ("I came to be able to...")

From Adam

I believe in this case, the ように is from the structure "Dictionary form + ようにする"
which means "Try to ~, make sure to ~"

From Richvh

"You ni" at the end of a sentence indicates that the preceding is a wish.

Desire

From Richvh

You use -tai form to indicate something you want to do; you use -te hoshii form to indicate 
something you want someone else to do, and ga hoshii form to indicate something you want.


Conditionals

From BigKahuna

~たら

(the conditional) means that if/when something happens something else happens
田中は来たら、僕は行く When/if Tanaka comes, I'll go.  It can mean certainty (when) or 
have some level of uncertainty (if) depending on context.  ~たら can be used for past 
event  田中は来たら、僕は行った When Tanaka came, I went.

~えば

(the provisional) means if or "provided that".  田中は行けば、 僕も行く Provided 
that Tanaka goes, I'll also go.  Whereas the conditional can mean certainty there has 
to be some level of uncertainty with this form.  Also this form cannot be used for 
past events (since we know the outcome of a past event)
My own experience is that the conditional form is used alot more than the provisional form. And most times that I run across the provisional it's in idiomatic expressions like ~なければいけない have to do something.
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