I'm just sticking random notes here for personal reference. Good stuff from the forums that indicates either stuff not found in textbooks or concepts that are giving me trouble. Even though these notes address my personal weaknesses, I'm putting them here in case they might benefit someone else too.
From Shin1ro San
In my head, from the highest rank of politeness to the lower.
お金を貸していただけないでしょうか? - very polite お金を貸していただけませんか？ - very polite お金を貸していただきたいのですが。 - very polite お金を貸していただけますか？ - very polite, rather direct お金を貸してもらえないでしょうか? - polite お金を貸してもらえませんか？ - polite お金を貸してもらいたいのですが。 - polite, rather direct お金を貸してもらえますか？ - polite, rather direct お金を貸してくれないでしょうか? - polite お金を貸してくれませんか？ - neutral, rather direct お金を貸してほしいのですが。 - neutral, rather direct お金を貸してくれますか？ - neutral, direct
お金貸してもらえないかな？ - casual お金貸してもらえるかな？ - casual, rather direct お金貸してもらえる？ - casual, rather direct お金貸してくれないかな？ - casual お金貸してくれるかな？ - casual, rather direct お金貸してくれる？ - casual, rather direct お金貸してほしいんだけど。 - casual, neutral お金貸して - casual, most direct!
金を貸せ。 - rude, almost theatening 金を出せ - criminal robbery
just joking :-P
したほうがいい is not past tense. "You should have" would be 「したほうがよかった」
行った方がいいですか "Should I go?" 行った方がよかったですか "Should I have gone?" 行く方がいいですか "Is going better?"
Hmm, exceptions ... well は always works for the whole sentence so if your が is in a subclause then it can't be replaced with は. 猫がすきな妹がいます。I have a sister who likes cats. 猫はすきな妹がいます。(The) Cat has a sister it likes.
Here's another example of な with a phrase
- "In contrast to his ""Not bad looks but seems a bit of a dandy"" appearance he didn't have a girlfriend and he wasn't particularly fast with the ladies."
Usually we use [adverb form of adjective] or [nouns + に] plus [なる] to say something became something else... But how do you do that with verbs? Verbs don't have an adverb form, and you can't put に on the end of them.
In that type of situation, we use よう after the verbs to create a bridge that can be なるed It doesn't have anything to do with time.
I can't think of how to explain why we use よう like this. That's just how it's done!
Examples! Adjective: 赤くなった - It turned red Noun: 大学生になった - I became a college student Verb: 分かるようになった - It became that I understood ("I came to understand") できるようになった - It became that I could ("I came to be able to...")
I believe in this case, the ように is from the structure "Dictionary form + ようにする" which means "Try to ~, make sure to ~"
"You ni" at the end of a sentence indicates that the preceding is a wish.
The two uses of 「ように」(you ni) that have been brought up are grammatically the same thing, and conceivably either one could be correct in this case.
It can be a request: 「遅れないようにお願いします」 "Please don't be late." meaning "Please make it so that you aren't late." It can be a sort of a prayer (The "I hope" or "I wish" meaning): 「合格しますように」= 「神様、合格しますようにしてください。」 "Dear God, please make it so that I pass." (Creative license invoked)
As Paul said, this is often used with the ます form, as in the above example, but not always.
私のことを忘れないように（願います）（祈ります） "Please don't (I pray you don't) forget me."
"(Do something) so that you don't forget me."
You use -tai form to indicate something you want to do; you use -te hoshii form to indicate something you want someone else to do, and ga hoshii form to indicate something you want.
(the conditional) means that if/when something happens something else happens 田中は来たら、僕は行く When/if Tanaka comes, I'll go. It can mean certainty (when) or have some level of uncertainty (if) depending on context. ～たら can be used for past event 田中は来たら、僕は行った When Tanaka came, I went.
(the provisional) means if or "provided that". 田中は行けば、 僕も行く Provided that Tanaka goes, I'll also go. Whereas the conditional can mean certainty there has to be some level of uncertainty with this form. Also this form cannot be used for past events (since we know the outcome of a past event)
- My own experience is that the conditional form is used alot more than the provisional form. And most times that I run across the provisional it's in idiomatic expressions like ～なければいけない have to do something.