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61

61. Aboutโ€”ใใ‚‰ใ„ใƒปใใ‚‰ใ„ kuโ€‹โ€‹โ€‹โ€‹โ€‹โ€‹โ€‹โ€‹โ€‹rai / gurai

About how much? About how many?


Both ใใ‚‰ใ„ kurai and ใใ‚‰ใ„ gurai mean the same thing. In some cases, saying โ€œguraiโ€ may flow easier, but there otherwise doesnโ€™t seem to be a hard and fast rule for which to choose.


ใŠๅฎขๆง˜ใฏใ€€ใฉใฎใใ‚‰ใ„ใ€€ๆฅใพใ—ใŸใ‹๏ผŸ

โ€‹okyakusama wa dono kurai kimashita ka?
About how many customers came?


ใˆใˆใจใ€๏ผ‘๏ผ๏ผไบบใ€€ใใ‚‰ใ„ใ€€ๆฅใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

โ€‹eeto, hyaku nin kurai kimashita.
Let me see, About 100 people.


You can use this with time:


๏ผ˜ๆ™‚ใ€€ใใ‚‰ใ„

โ€‹hachi ji gurai
about eight Oโ€™clock


Or counting anything:

๏ผ’ๅŒนใใ‚‰ใ„ ni hiki kurai - about two (animals)


๏ผ‘๏ผๅ†Šใใ‚‰ใ„ juu satsu gurai - about ten books


62

62. How About...? โ€”ใฉใ†๏ผŸ dou?

To ask the state of something (how something is doing) use the useful dou (desu ka).


You can use it as a question with or without the final โ€œdesu kaโ€ in casual conversation.


ๆœ€่ฟ‘ใฏใ€€ใฉใ†ใ€€ใงใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ

โ€‹saikin wa dou desu ka?
Howโ€™s it going recently?


ใ‚ณใƒผใƒ’ใƒผใฏใ€€ใฉใ†๏ผŸ

โ€‹ko-hi- wa dou?
Howโ€™s the coffee?
(Or it could mean, โ€œHow about some coffee?โ€)


ๅคฉๆฐ—ใ€€ไบˆๅ ฑใฏใ€€ใฉใ†๏ผŸ

โ€‹โ€‹tenki yohou wa dou?
Howโ€™s the weather forecast looking?


Of course, when the context is understood and in casual situations, you can simply say, โ€œdou?โ€ (Like returning from a doctorโ€™s appointment or after your friend gets off an important phone call.)



63

63. ใ—ใพใฃใŸใƒปใกใ‚ƒใฃใŸ Shimatta / Chatta

This literally means โ€œto complete; to finishโ€ but can (and usually does) involve a feeling of regret over having done something. Also, it can be used sarcastically to mean the speaker really wanted to do something bad, but now gives a halfhearted apology. For example:


ๆœ€ๅพŒใฎใ€€ใ‚ฏใƒƒใ‚ญใƒผใ‚’ใ€€้ฃŸในใฆใ€€ใ—ใพใฃใŸใ€‚

โ€‹saigo no kukki- wo tabete shimatta.
I, unfortunately, ate the last cookie.


Of course there really wasnโ€™t anything unfortunate about it.


The construction is usually after the ~te form of any verb


ๅ…จ้ƒจใฎใ€€ใŠ้‡‘ใ‚’ใ€€ไฝฟใฃใฆใ—ใพใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

โ€‹zenbu no okane wo tsukatte shimaimashita.
Unfortunately, I spent all my money.


็งใฏใ€€ๅฎŒๅ…จใซใ€€ๆ—ฅๆœฌ่ชžใ‚’ใ€€ๅฟ˜ใ‚Œใฆใ—ใพใฃใŸใ€‚

โ€‹watashi wa kanzen ni nihongo wo wasurete shimatta.
Unfortunately, I have completely forgotten Japanese.


Another very useful variation is ~chatta. This is more informal and is used by both male and female speakers (Except in the Kansai area where mostly only women use it). chau is made by shortening te shimau.

โ€‹

่ฉฆ้จ“ใซใ€€่ฝใกใกใ‚ƒใฃใŸใ€‚

โ€‹shiken ni ochichatta.
I flunked the test unfortunately.


Or in the present tense


ใ‚ฑใƒผใ‚ญใ‚’ใ€€ๅ…จ้ƒจใ€€้ฃŸในใกใ‚ƒใ†ใ€‚ใ€€

โ€‹ke-ki wo zenbu tabechau.
I will eat all the cake.


64

64. Please do... โ€”๏ฝžใฆใใ ใ•ใ„ ~te kudasai

Hereโ€™s how you boss people around. Well, in a nice way...


add kudasai (please) after the ~te form of any verb:


ใ‚†ใฃใใ‚Šใ€€่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

โ€‹yukkuri hanashite kudasai.
Please speak slowly.


ใ‚‚ใฃใจใ€€ๅคงไบบใ‚‰ใ—ใใ—ใฆใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

โ€‹motto otona rashiku shite kudasai.
Please act more grown-up.


ใ“ใ“ใงใ€€ๅณใซใ€€ๆ›ฒใŒใฃใฆใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

โ€‹koko de migi ni magatte kudasai.
Please turn right here.

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65. Please give me... โ€”ใ‚’ใใ ใ•ใ„ wo kudasai

Another use for kudasai is โ€œplease give me...โ€


ใใฎๆœฌใ‚’ใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

โ€‹sono hon o kudasai.
Please give me that book.


๏ผ•๏ผ๏ผๅ††ใ‚’ใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

โ€‹go hyaku en o kudasai.
Please give me 500 yen.


In spoken Japanese, the โ€œใ‚’ oโ€ is often dropped or swallowed in speech.

66

A good knowledge of position words will help glue everything together.


ใซ ni โ€“ on

โ€‹

ๆœบใซใ€€ๆœฌใŒใ€€ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚

โ€‹tsukue ni hon ga arimasu.
There is a book on/in the desk.

ใฎใ†ใˆใซ no ue ni - on top of

โ€‹

ๆœบใฎใ€€ใ†ใˆใซใ€€ๆœฌใŒใ€€ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚

โ€‹tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu.
There is a book on (top of) the desk.

โ€‹

ใฎใ—ใŸใซ no shita ni - under...

โ€‹

ๆœบใฎใ€€ใ—ใŸใซใ€€ๆœฌใŒใ€€ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚

โ€‹tsukue no shita ni hon ga arimasu.
There is a book under the desk.

ใฎๅพŒใ‚ใซ no ushiro ni - behind...

โ€‹

ๆœบใฎใ€€ๅพŒใ‚ใซใ€€ๆœฌใŒใ€€ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚

โ€‹tsukue no ushiro ni hon ga arimasu.
There is a book behind the desk.


67

67. Why donโ€™t we...?โ€”ใพใ›ใ‚“ใ‹ masen ka?

Why donโ€™t we study a little more?


ใฉใ“ใ‹ใงใ€€้ฃŸในใพใ›ใ‚“ใ‹๏ผŸใ€€

โ€‹dokoka de tabemasen ka?
Why donโ€™t we eat somewhere?


ไฝ•ใ‹ใ€€้ฃฒใฟใพใ›ใ‚“ใ‹๏ผŸใ€€

โ€‹nanika nomimasen ka?
Would you like something to drink? or Why donโ€™t we have a drink?


The context decides if the meaning should be โ€œWhy donโ€™t WEโ€ or โ€œWould YOU.โ€


68

68. Closer Look at the Direct Object Marker

ใ‚’ is pronounced o (usually) but following the pattern, it should be wo (which is how it is sometimes romanized as). Simply put, ใ‚’ o is the โ€œdirect object marker.โ€ It indicates the previous word is the direct object. There are cases when the English would not consider it a direct object, though. Learn some examples and give it a try. This particle is one of the easier ones.


็งใฏใ€€ใ‚Šใ‚“ใ”ใ‚’ใ€€้ฃŸในใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

โ€‹watashi wa ringo o tabemashita.
I ate an apple. (apple is the ใ‚’ o)


้Ÿณๆฅฝใ‚’ใ€€่žใใŸใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

โ€‹ongaku o kikitai desu.
I want to listen to music. (music is the ใ‚’ o)


ใƒ†ใƒฌใƒ“ใ‚’ใ€€่ฒทใ†ใ€€ใคใ‚‚ใ‚Šใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

terebi o kau tsumori desu.
I intend to buy a TV.
(tsumori means โ€œintend toโ€; TV is the ใ‚’ o)

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69. Closer Look at ใซ ni

In most cases the particle ใธ he can be used interchangeably with ใซ ni. But ใซ ni has a wider application. So for now, just stick with ใซ ni.

Showing movement... Like โ€œtoโ€ or โ€œtoward.โ€


ๆ—ฅๆœฌใซใ€€่กŒใใŸใ„ใ€‚

nihon ni ikitai.
I want to go to Japan. (direction TO Japan)


ใฉใ“ใซใ€€่กŒใใŸใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€€ใ‹ใ€‚

โ€‹doko ni ikitai desu ka.
(to) Where do you want to go?


Meaning โ€œonโ€ or โ€œinโ€:


็ด™ใซใ€€็ตตใ‚’ใ€€ๆใใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

โ€‹kami ni e o kakimashita.
I drew a picture on a piece of paper.


In time - โ€œatโ€:


ๅ…ญๆ™‚ใซใ€€ไผšใ„ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚

โ€‹roku ji ni aimashou.
Letโ€™s meet at six.


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This is used mainly for the location where something happens.


ใƒ‡ใƒ‘ใƒผใƒˆใงใ€€ๅธฝๅญใ‚’ใ€€่ฒทใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚ใ€€

โ€‹depa-to de boushi o kaimashita.
I bought a hat at the department store.


ๆ—ฅๆœฌใงใ€€ไฝ•ใ‚’ใ€€ใ—ใพใ—ใŸใ‹๏ผŸใ€€

โ€‹nihon de nani o shimashita ka.
In Japan, what did you do?


Observe the difference between ni and de:


ใƒžใ‚ฏใƒ‰ใƒŠใƒซใƒ‰ใซใ€€่กŒใใŸใ„ใ€‚

makudonarudo ni ikitai.
I want to go to McDonalds.
[Shows movement and direction.]


ใƒžใ‚ฏใƒ‰ใƒŠใƒซใƒ‰ใงใ€€้ฃŸในใŸใ„ใ€‚

makudonarudo de tabetai.
I want to eat at McDonalds.
[Shows location.]


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This is the subject or sometimes object marker. This may take you longer than five minutes to go through, but it will be worth it.


้›จใŒใ€€้™ใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚

โ€‹ame ga futteimasu.
Itโ€™s raining.


We are simply stating the circumstances at the moment and the subject of that particular sentence is โ€œrain.โ€


Now our attention moves from the general circumstances (that it is raining) to describing the rain itself.  We set โ€œrainโ€ as the topic of the conversation with ใฏ wa.


้›จใฏใ€€ๅ†ทใŸใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

โ€‹ame wa tsumetai desu.
The rain is cold.


You would use โ€œwaโ€ because it is now the topic of the conversation and you are describing this particular rain.



The Contrasting ใŒ ga

โ€‹

ใžใ†ใ€€ใฏใ€€ใฏใชใ€€ใŒใ€€ใชใŒใ„ใ€‚

โ€‹zou wa hana ga nagai.
Elephants have long noses.


In English we wouldnโ€™t call โ€œnosesโ€ the subject, but the topic is elephants and their noses are being described.


Now letโ€™s contrast with ใŒ ga.


Which has a longer nose? Giraffes (kirin) or elephants (zou)? (The topic is actually both of these animals so you will want to use โ€œgaโ€ to specify which one.)

ใžใ†ใ€€ใŒใ€€ใฏใชใ€€ใŒใ€€ใชใŒใ„ใ€‚

โ€‹zou ga hana ga nagai.
The elephant has a long(er) nose.


[We could throw in โ€œno hou ga,โ€ but I wanted to keep it simple.]


ใจใชใ‚Šใ€€ใซใ€€ใŠใฐใ‚ใ•ใ‚“ใ€€ใŒใ€€ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚

tonari ni obaasan ga imasu.
Next door, there is an old woman.


[Note: you are introducing the old woman as the subject, but not yet the overall topic. Note the "an" in English.]


ใใฎใ€€ใŠใฐใ‚ใ•ใ‚“ใ€€ใฏใ€€ใ‚„ใ•ใ—ใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

sono obaasan wa yasashii desu.
That old woman is nice.


Now that we have brought up the old woman in passing, letโ€™s talk about her specifically. She is now the topic and we are describing her.



The Question Words ใŒ ga


Always use โ€œgaโ€ with question words:


ไฝ•ใŒใ€€ใŠใ„ใ—ใ„๏ผŸ

nani ga oishii?
What tastes good?


่ชฐใŒใ€€ๆฅใพใ—ใŸใ‹๏ผŸ

dare ga kimashita ka?
Who came?


ใฉใ“ใŒใ€€ไธ€็•ชใ€€ใ„ใ„ใ€€ใจใ“ใ‚ใ€€ใงใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ

doko ga ichi ban ii tokoro desu ka?
Where is the best place?



ใŒ Used with Certain Words: [suki; hoshii; wakaru]

โ€‹

ใ‚ใŸใ—ใฏใ€€ใญใ“ใŒใ€€ๅฅฝใใ€‚

โ€‹watashi wa neko ga suki.
I like cats.


ใญใ“ใŒใ€€ใปใ—ใ„ใ€‚

โ€‹neko ga hoshii.
(I) want a cat.


่‹ฑ่ชžใŒใ€€ใ‚ใ‹ใ‚‹ใ€‚

โ€‹eigo ga wakaru.
I understand English.



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72. If IIโ€”ใŸใ‚‰ tara

A while back we learned ใ‚‚ใ— moshi is a word that means โ€œif.โ€ ใŸใ‚‰ tara is added to the end of verbs to give the meaning of โ€œif this is done, then this will happen.โ€


It is formed by finding the simple past form and adding a ใ‚‰ ra.

โ€‹

ใ‚ใชใŸใŒใ€€ใใŸใ‚‰ใ€ใ‹ใ‚Œใฏใ€€ใ‹ใˆใ‚‹ใ€‚

anata ga kitara, kare wa kaeru
If you come, he will go home.


The simple past form of ใใ‚‹ kuru (to come) is ใใŸ kita (came). (One of the few irregular verbs.) The second phrase is conditional on the ใŸใ‚‰ tara phrase.


ใ‚ดใ‚ธใƒฉใซใ€€ไผšใฃใŸใ‚‰ใ€ใฉใ†ใ—ใ‚ˆใ†๏ผŸใ€€

โ€‹gojira ni attara doushiyou.
What should I do if I meet Godzilla?


You can also use it with nouns by using the simple past form of desu: ใ ใฃใŸ datta

โ€‹

ใŠ้‡‘ๆŒใกใ€€ใ ใฃใŸใ‚‰ใ€ๅคงใใชใ€€ๅฎถใŒใ€€่ฒทใˆใ‚‹ใ€€ใฎใซใ€‚

โ€‹okanemochi da tara ookina ie ga kaeru noni.
If only I were rich, I could buy a large house.

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73. Soft Ender IIโ€”ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจ chotto

Many years ago I found a great example in a book illustrating how Japanese can be rudely direct or politely indirect. For example, you can say:


1) ใ“ใ„๏ผ Koi

or

2) ใ‚ใฎใ†ใ€ใ™ใฟใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€ใŸใ„ใธใ‚“ๆใ‚Œใ„ใ‚Œใพใ™ใŒใ€ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจใ“ใกใ‚‰ใธใ„ใ‚‰ใฃใ—ใ‚ƒใฃใฆใใ ใ•ใ„ใพใ›ใ‚“ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ‹๏ผŸ

anou, sumimasen, taihen osoreiremasu ga, chotto kochira e irasshatte kudasaimasen deshou ka?


Both mean โ€œcome hereโ€ but the second is made much politerโ€”and longerโ€”by being cushioned by many soft, indirect words. One of these softening words is ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจ chotto.


ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจ chotto means โ€œlittleโ€ or โ€œsmall amount,โ€ but it is often used to soften an otherwise painful โ€œnoโ€ or โ€œyour request is impossible; live with itโ€ kind of sentence.


ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจใ€€้›ฃใ—ใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใŒใ€‚

chotto muzukashi desu ga.
Thatโ€™s a little difficult...


(This may be said when the request is impossible but the speaker doesnโ€™t want to be direct. The ga here also softens.)


ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจใ€€ๅ‡บๆฅใชใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

chotto dekinai desu.
It canโ€™t be done.


ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจใ€€ๅˆ†ใ‹ใ‚‰ใชใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

chotto wakaranai desu.
Iโ€™m not really sure.


I have been told the sound โ€œchottoโ€ is a bad word in Korean. If that is the case, ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจ chotto may not be that soft of a word...



74

When you want to impress upon your listener the importance or the truth of what you are saying stick a ใ‚ˆ yo at the end of the sentence.


ๆœฌๅฝ“ใ€€ใงใ™ใ‚ˆใ€‚

โ€‹hontou desu yo.
Itโ€™s the truth, I tell ya!


(Perhaps the speaker suspects the listener doesnโ€™t believe what was just said.)


ใƒ•ใƒญใƒชใƒ€ใฎใ€€๏ผ‘๏ผ’ๆœˆใฏใ€€ๆš‘ใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ‹๏ผŸใ€€

โ€‹fururida no juuni gatsu wa atsui desu ka?
Is December in Florida pretty hot?


็ตๆง‹ ใ€€ๅฏ’ใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ‚ˆใ€‚ใ€€

โ€‹kekkou samui desu yo.
Actually, it is pretty cold.


It is very useful for rumors or explaining a truth you know someone may not swallow at first:


้ˆดๆœจใ•ใ‚“ใฏใ€€ๅฎ‡ๅฎ™ไบบใ€€ใงใ™ใ‚ˆใ€‚

โ€‹suzuki san wa uchuujin desu yo.
Suzuki is an alien, you know.

75

75. Even Ifโ€”ใงใ‚‚ใƒปใฆใ‚‚ demo / temo

We have previously studied ใ‚‚ mo which means โ€œalso.โ€ When added after the ใฆ te form of a verb or adjective, it brings the meaning of โ€œeven if.โ€


Letโ€™s investigate:


ๅ†—่ซ‡ใ‚’ใ€€่จ€ใฃใฆใ‚‚ใ€ๅฝผใฏใ€€็ฌ‘ใ„ใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚

joudan wo ittemo, kare wa waraimasen.
Even if you tell a joke, he wonโ€™t laugh.

And an adjective:


ๅ†ทใŸใใฆใ‚‚ใ€้ฃŸในใ‚‰ใ‚Œใพใ™ใ€‚

tsumetakutemo taberaremasu.
Even if it is cold, I can eat it.


And just stick it after a noun:


ใ‚นใƒผใƒ‘ใƒžใƒณใ€€ใงใ‚‚ใ€ใใ‚“ใชใ€€ใ“ใจใฏใ€€ใงใใชใ„ใ€€ใ‚ˆใ€‚

su-paman demo, sonna koto wa dekinai yo.
Even Superman canโ€™t do that!

76

76. The Best; -estโ€”ไธ€็•ช ichiban

While it literally means #1, it is also used as a superlativeโ€”most or -est


้ฃŸใน็‰ฉใฎใ€€ไธญใฏใ€€ไฝ•ใŒใ€€ไธ€็•ชใ€€ๅฅฝใใ€€ใงใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ

tabemono no naka wa nani ga ichiban suki desu ka?
Out of all foods, what do you like the best?


ๅฏŒๅฃซๅฑฑใฏใ€ไธ–็•Œใงใ€€ไธ€็•ชใ€€้ซ˜ใ„ใ€€ๅฑฑใ€€ใ˜ใ‚ƒใชใ„ใ€‚

fujisan wa sekai de ichiban takai yama ja nai.
Mt. Fuji isnโ€™t the tallest mountain in the world.


77

77. About... โ€”ใซใคใ„ใฆ ni tsuite

This is added to mean โ€œletโ€™s talk ABOUT the previous word.โ€ Simply stick it after the subject you want to talk about.


็•ช็ต„ใ€€ใซใคใ„ใฆใ€€ใฎใ€€ใŠ็Ÿฅใ‚‰ใ›ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

bangumi ni tsuite no oshirase desu.
This is an annoucement about the program (TV program, for example).


ใ‚ใฎใ€€ๆ˜ ็”ปใ€€ใซใคใ„ใฆใ€€ใฉใ†ใ€€ๆ€ใ†๏ผŸ

ano eiga ni tsuite dou omou?
What do you think about that movie?

78

78. Canโ€™t; Not Allowedโ€”ใ„ใ‘ใพใ›ใ‚“ ikemasen

This is how to say something is forbidden. Perhaps the easiest way to use this is to stick it after the ใฆ te form of a verb and ใฏ (wa - topic particle).

็Ÿฅใ‚‰ใชใ„ใ€€ไบบใจใ€€่ฉฑใ—ใฆใฏใ€€ใ„ใ‘ใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚

shiranai hito to hanashite wa ikemasen.
Donโ€™t speak to strangers.


Often in casual speech, the ใฆใฏ tewa becomes ใกใ‚ƒ cha (or ใ˜ใ‚ƒ ja) as in:

ใใฎใ€€ๆ˜ ็”ปใ‚’ใ€€่ฆ‹ใกใ‚ƒใ€€ใ„ใ‘ใพใ›ใ‚“ใ‚ˆใ€‚

sono eiga wo micha ikemasen yo.
You are not allowed to watch this movie.  Or, โ€œYou shouldnโ€™t watch this movie.โ€


You can also use ใ ใ‚ dame for a similar effect in casual speech:

็งใฎๆœฌใ‚’ใ€€่ชญใ‚“ใ˜ใ‚ƒใ€€ใ ใ‚ใ€‚

watashi no hon wo yonja dame.
You canโ€™t read my book!


79

There are a number of fairly easy kanji that will dramatically increase your vocabulary. These kanji have specific meanings that, when added to other kanji or words, changes the whole meaning in a logical way.


80

In Japanese, different types of objects have different counters. While English does have a few such examples (a cup of coffee, for example), English usually simply takes a number (1,2,3...), adds a noun, and an โ€œsโ€ to count items.


Counters make Japanese both difficult and fun to learn. Letโ€™s emphasize the โ€œfunโ€ part.  Here are a few very useful counters:


Counter: nin | Usage: people


ไธ€ไบบใ€€hitori - one person [irregular]

ไบŒไบบใ€€futari - two people [irregular]

ไธ‰ไบบใ€€san nin - three people [now we simply add the โ€œChineseโ€ numbers to ใซใ‚“]

ๅ››ไบบใ€€yonin - [โ€œshi ninโ€  is NOT used. Probably because โ€œๆญป shiโ€ can mean death... Also notice the dropped โ€œใ‚“ nโ€ from โ€œใ‚ˆใ‚“ yonโ€] four people


ไบ”ไบบใ€€gonin - five people

ๅ…ญไบบใ€€rokunin - six people

โ€‹ไธƒไบบใ€€shichinin or nananin [ใ—ใกใซใ‚“ shichinin is used more often, but ใชใชใซใ‚“nananin is also used] - seven people


ๅ…ซไบบใ€€hachi nin - eight people


ไนไบบใ€€kyuunin or kunin - nine people

ๅไบบใ€€juunin - ten people

ๅไธ€ไบบใ€€juuichinin - eleven people
etc...


Counter: hiki | Usage: most animals


ไธ€ๅŒนใ€€ippiki [notice the H changes to a P] - one animal

ไบŒๅŒนใ€€nihiki - two animals


ไธ‰ๅŒนใ€€sanbiki [notice the H changes to a B this time.]

ๅ››ๅŒนใ€€yonhiki


ไบ”ๅŒนใ€€gohiki


ๅ…ญๅŒนใ€€roppiki [notice the H changes to a P AND the ku becomes a small tsu]


ไธƒๅŒนใ€€nanahiki or shichihiki [probably nanahiki is most used]


ๅ…ซๅŒนใ€€happiki or hachihiki


ไนๅŒนใ€€kyuuhiki


ๅๅŒนใ€€juppiki

โ€‹

Counter: ko | Usage: a generic counter for just about anything


ไธ€ๅ€‹ใ€€ikko [This is โ€œใ„ใก ichiโ€ plus โ€œๅ€‹ ko.โ€ The โ€œchiโ€ is replaced by a slight pause. Listen to the audio.] - one thing


ไบŒๅ€‹ใ€€niko - two things


ไธ‰ๅ€‹ใ€€sanko


ๅ››ๅ€‹ใ€€yonko


ไบ”ๅ€‹ใ€€goko


ๅ…ญๅ€‹ใ€€rokko


ไธƒๅ€‹ใ€€nanako


ๅ…ซๅ€‹ใ€€hakko


ไนๅ€‹ใ€€kyuuko


ๅๅ€‹ใ€€juko or jiko (TV announcers regulary say โ€œjiko.โ€)



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