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81

81. ใฎ no as a Pronoun

No can be used in place of a noun (indefinite pronoun) to mean โ€œoneโ€ or โ€œsome.โ€


Construction:


Use in place of noun:


้’ใ„ใ€€ใฎใ€‚

aoi no.
The blue one.


ๅฎ‰ใ„ใ€€ใฎใ€€ใŒใ€€ใปใ—ใ„ใ€‚

yasui no ga hoshii.
I want the cheap one. (computer, car, book, anything)

82

82. How to... โ€”๏ฝžใ‹ใŸ ~kata

Attach ใ‹ใŸ kata to the stem of verbs to change it into a noun to mean: Way or Manner of doing or how to do...


Construction:
Take the ~ใพใ™ masu form of a verb minus the ใพใ™ masu and then add ใ‹ใŸ kata.


ๆผขๅญ—ใ€€ใฎใ€€่ชญใฟๆ–น

kanji no yomi kata
How/Way to read (a) kanji


ๆผขๅญ—ใ€€ใฎใ€€ๆ›ธใๆ–น

kanji no kaki kata

How/Way to write (a) kanji



Letโ€™s ask, โ€œPlease teach me how to use chopsticks correctly.โ€


ใฏใ—ใ€€ใฎใ€€ๆญฃใ—ใ„ใ€€ไฝฟใ„ๆ–นใ‚’ใ€€ๆ•™ใˆใฆใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

hashi no tadashii tsukai kata o oshiete kudasai.
Please teach me how to use chopsticks correctly.


83

83. Please Donโ€™t...โ€”๏ฝžใชใ„ใงใใ ใ•ใ„  ~naide kudasai

Sometimes you have to tell/ask people to not do something.


Construction:
Take the ใพใ™ masu form of a verb and drop the ใพใ™ masu. Then add ใชใ„ใงใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ naide kudasai.


ใ‚ฑใƒผใ‚ญใ‚’ใ€€้ฃŸในใชใ„ใงใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

ke-ki wo tabe naide kudasai.
Please donโ€™t eat the cake.


ใ‚นใ‚ซใ‚คใƒ€ใ‚คใƒ“ใƒณใ‚ฐใ‚’ใ€€ใ—ใชใ„ใงใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

sukaidaibingu wo shinaide kudasai.
Please donโ€™t go skydiving.


84

84. Have Done...โ€”ใ“ใจใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ koto ga arimasu

This is a very useful construction. Simply add it after a simple past form of a verb:


Construction:

1) Take the simple past form of a verb.
2) Add ใ“ใจใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ koto ga arimasu.

ใ‚ขใƒกใƒชใ‚ซใซใ€€่กŒใฃใŸใ€€ใ“ใจใŒใ€€ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

amerika ni itta koto ga arimasu ka?

Have you been to America?


็ด่ฑ†ใ‚’ใ€€้ฃŸในใŸใ€€ใ“ใจใŒใ€€ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚

nattou wo tabeta koto ga arimasu.
(I) have eaten natto before.

85

85. To Decide to Have...โ€”ใซใ—ใพใ™ ni shimasu

Very often this phrase is used to mean, โ€œIโ€™ll have (some food or drink).โ€ Next time you go to a Japanese restaurant, give this a try.


ใชใซใซใ€€ใ—ใพใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

nani ni shimasu ka?
What will you have?


็งใฏใ€€ใฆใ‚“ใทใ‚‰ใ€€ใซใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚

watashi wa tenpura ni shimasu.
Iโ€™ll have tempura.

86

86. Aboutโ€”ใปใฉ hodo

To say โ€œaboutโ€ as in โ€œabout a weekโ€ or to show an approximate degree of something, use ~ใปใฉ hodo.


๏ผ‘้€ฑ้–“ใ€€ใปใฉ

isshuu kan hodo
About a week


้ง…ใฏใ€€๏ผ‘๏ผใ‚ญใƒญใ€€ใปใฉใ€€ใ•ใใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

eki wa jukkiro hodo saki desu.
The train station is about 10 kilometers ahead.


ใ“ใ‚Œใฏใ€€๏ผ•๏ผŒ๏ผ๏ผ๏ผๅ††ใ€€ใปใฉใงใ€€่ฒทใˆใพใ™ใ€‚

kore wa go sen en hodo de kaemasu.
This can be bought for about 5000 yen.

87

87. Even ifโ€”ใŸใจใˆ๏ฝžใฆใ‚‚ tatoe  ~temo

Sometimes you need to wax poetic.


Construction: VERBS
1) ใŸใจใˆ tatoe +
2) Take the ใฆ te form of a verb
3) Add ใฆใ‚‚ temo


ใŸใจใˆใ€€ไธ–็•ŒใŒใ€€็ต‚ใ‚ใฃใฆใ‚‚ใƒปใƒปใƒป

tatoe sekai ga owattemo
Even if the world ends...


ใŸใจใˆใ€€ๅคฑๆ•—ใ—ใฆใ‚‚ใ€€ใพใŸใ€€้ ‘ๅผตใ‚Šใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚

tatoe shippai shitemo mata ganbarimashou..
Even if we fail, letโ€™s keep at it.


Make the negative form of the verb with ใฆใ‚‚ temo:


ใŸใจใˆใ€€ไบŒๅบฆใจใ€€ไผšใˆใชใใฆใ‚‚ใ€€ๅฟ˜ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚

tatoe nido to aenaku temo wasuremasen.
Even if we shall never meet again, I wonโ€™t forget.


88

88. And, and, etcโ€”๏ฝžใŸใ‚Š ~tari

Doing this; doing that


Construction:
1) Take the ใŸ ta form of a verb (simple past)
2) Add ใŸใ‚Š tari.

็ซ‹ใฃใŸใ‚Šใ€€ๅบงใฃใŸใ‚Šใ€‚

tattari suwatari
Standing and sitting


ใƒ‰ใƒซใŒใ€€ไธŠใŒใฃใŸใ‚Šใ€€ไธ‹ใŒใฃใŸใ‚Šใ€‚

doru ga agattari sagattari.
The dollar is rising and falling.


ใใ‚‡ใ†ใฏใ€€่ฒทใ„็‰ฉใ‚’ใ€€ใ—ใŸใ‚Šใ€€ใƒฌใ‚นใƒˆใƒฉใƒณใงใ€€้ฃŸในใŸใ‚Šใ€€ใ—ใฆใ€€ใŸใใ•ใ‚“ใฎใ€€ใŠ้‡‘ใ‚’ใ€€ไฝฟใฃใŸใ€‚

kyou wa kaimono wo shitari resutoran de tabetari shite takusan no okane wo tsukatta.
Today, I went shopping and ate at a restaurant, etc; I used a lot of money.

89

89. Closer Whileโ€”ใชใŒใ‚‰ nagara

While doing this, I also did this...


Construction:
1) Take the ใพใ™ masu form of a verb and drop the ใพใ™masu (the stem).
2) Then add ใชใŒใ‚‰ nagara.

้Ÿณๆฅฝใ‚’ใ€€่ดใใชใŒใ‚‰ใ€€ๅ‹‰ๅผทใ‚’ใ€€ใ—ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

ongaku wo kiki nagara benkyou wo shimashita.
While studying, I listened to music.


ๆœฌใ‚’ใ€€่ชญใฟใ€€ใชใŒใ‚‰ใ€€ใ”้ฃฏใ‚’ใ€€้ฃŸในใพใ™ใ€‚

hon wo yomi nagara gohan wo tabemasu.
While eating a meal, I read a book.


One useful set phrase is


ๆฎ‹ๅฟตใชใŒใ‚‰

zan nen nagara

This means โ€œThatโ€™s too badโ€ or โ€œI regret (to say)โ€ or โ€œUnfortunately...โ€

90

90. May I...?โ€”๏ฝžใฆใ‚‚ใ„ใ„ใงใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ ~temo ii desu ka?

Asking permission and being polite go hand in hand. Here is how you do both in Japanese.


Construction:
1) Take the ใฆ te form of a verb
2) Add ใ‚‚ใ„ใ„ใงใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ mo ii desu ka.


้›ป่ฉฑใ‚’ใ€€ไฝฟใฃใฆใ‚‚ใ€€ใ„ใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

denwa wo tsukattemo ii desu ka?
May I use the phone?


ไผ‘ใ‚“ใงใ‚‚ใ€€ใ„ใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

yasundemo ii desu ka?
May I take a break? (from work, from studying, etc)


ใกใ‚‡ใฃใจใ€€่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ‚‚ใ€€ใ„ใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

chotto hanashitemo ii desu ka?
May I say something? (Iโ€™d like to speak a little)


91

91. Not Muchโ€”ใ‚ใพใ‚Š amari

Not much; not reallyโ€”Followed by a negative verb


Construction:
Used in a negative sentence


ๆ—ฅๆœฌ่ชžใŒใ€€ใ‚ใพใ‚Šใ€€ไธŠๆ‰‹ใ€€ใ˜ใ‚ƒใชใ„ใ€‚

nihongo ga amari jouzu ja nai.
Iโ€™m not really good at Japanese.


ใ‚ใพใ‚Šใ€€ใ‚ˆใใชใ„ใ€‚

amari yokunai.
(Thatโ€™s) not really good.


่ธŠใ‚Šใฏใ€€ใ‚ใพใ‚Šใ€€ใ†ใพใใ€€ใชใ„ใ€‚

odori wa amari umaku nai.
Iโ€™m not really good dancing.


ใŠ้‡‘ใฏใ€€ใ‚ใพใ‚Šใ€€ใชใ„ใ€‚

okane wa amari nai.
I donโ€™t have much money.


92

92. The Power โ€œใใ†souโ€

ใใ† Sou, for our purposes today, means, โ€œThatโ€™s rightโ€ or โ€œThatโ€™s soโ€ (the latter being an easy way to remember!)


Construction:
This useful word is used in various idiomatic ways. It is best to learn each as an example by heart.


ใใ†ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

sou desu.
Yes, that is right.


ใใ†ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

sou desu ka?
Is that so?; Really?; You donโ€™t say?


ใใ†ใ€€ใ„ใˆใฐใƒปใƒปใƒป

sou ieba...
Now that you mention it; speaking of that...


ใใ†ใ€€่€ƒใˆใ‚‹ใ€€ใจ

sou kangaeru to...
Seen from that light; thinking like that; from that point of view


ใใ†ใ€€ใ—ใŸใ‚‰

sou shitara...
If you do it that way...; if done that way...


ใใ†ใ€€ใ—ใชใ„ใ€€ใจ

sou shinai to...
If you donโ€™t do it that way, then...


And there are many more you will come across! Listen to how ใใ† sou is used in conversation.

93

93. Polite Japaneseโ€”ๆ•ฌ่ชž keigo

There are three basic types of honorifics for verbs. Which form to use depends on your โ€œstatusโ€ in relation to the person with whom you are speaking.


A) Humble (ไธๅฏง่ชž teineigo) - This is when referring to oneself or family and (usually) speaking to someone higher up in grade, position, age, or some other criteria for determining status. However, even some people with high positions may choose to use the humble form with those under him or her.


B) Normal - This is the standard form of a verb/noun that you use every day. (ใพใ™ masu / ใงใ™ desu)


C) Exalted or Honorific (ๅฐŠๆ•ฌ่ชž sonkeigo) - This is what you say to your boss or those higher up when speaking about them or to them. If you are speaking about yourself, you will use the humble form.


Humble

Normal

Honorific

ๆ‹่ฆ‹ใ—ใพใ™

haiken shimasu

่ฆ‹ใพใ™

mimasu

to see

ใ”่ฆงใซใชใ‚Šใพใ™

goran ni narimasu

็”ณใ—ใพใ™

moushimasu

่จ€ใ„ใพใ™

iimasu

to say

ใŠใฃใ—ใ‚ƒใ„ใพใ™

osshaimasu

ใ„ใŸใ ใใพใ™

itadakimasu

้ฃŸในใพใ™

tabemasu

to eat

ๅฌใ—ไธŠใŒใ‚Šใพใ™

meshi agarimasu

ใพใ„ใ‚Šใพใ™

mairimasu

ๆฅใพใ™

kimasu

to come


่กŒใใพใ™

ikimasu

to go

ใ„ใ‚‰ใฃใ—ใ‚ƒใ„ใพใ™

irasshaimasu

ใ„ใŸใ—ใพใ™

itashimasu

ใ—ใพใ™

shimasu

to do

ใชใ•ใ„ใพใ™

nasaimasu

94

94. Polite IIโ€”ใŠ๏ฝžใใ ใ•ใ„ใƒปใŠ๏ฝžใซใชใ‚Šใพใ™ o ~ kudasai / o ~ ni narimasu

ใŠ o + stem + ใซใชใ‚Šใพใ™ ni narimasu This makes a โ€œnormalโ€ verb honorific (exalted) [You are speaking to or about someone with a higher status than you (your boss)]


็คพ้•ทใจใ€€่ฉฑใ—ใพใ—ใŸใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

shachou to hanashimashita ka?
Did you speak with the boss? (normal)


็คพ้•ทใจใ€€ใŠ่ฉฑใ€€ใซใ€€ใชใ‚Šใพใ—ใŸใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

shachou to o hanashi ni narimashita ka?
Did you speak with the boss? (polite)


ไฝ•ใ‹ใ€€้ฃฒใฟใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

nanika nomimasen ka?
Wonโ€™t you drink something? (normal)


ไฝ•ใ‹ใ€€ใŠ้ฃฒใฟใ€€ใซใ€€ใชใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

nanika o nomi ni narimasen ka?
Wonโ€™t you drink something? (polite)


ใŠ o + stem + ใใ ใ•ใ„ kudasai
This also makes a โ€œnormalโ€ verb exalted; it is used when asking things - โ€œplease give me...โ€


ๅฃฒใฃใฆใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

utte kudasai.
Please sell (me this). (normal)


ใŠๅฃฒใ‚Šใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

o uri kudasai.
Please sell (me this) (honorific)


้ฃŸในใฆใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

tabete kudasai.
Please eat. (normal)


ใŠ้ฃŸในใ€€ใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚

o tabe kudasai.
Please eat. (polite)

95

95. Giving & Receivingโ€”ใ‚ใ’ใ‚‹ใƒปใใ‚Œใ‚‹ใƒปใ‚‚ใ‚‰ใ† ageru / kureru / morau

These three verbs are easy to mix up, but they arenโ€™t too difficult if you spend some time learning each wordโ€™s function. It is of course more complex than this page allows, but our overview should give you a fairly good understanding.


The Word: ใ‚ใ’ใ‚‹ ageru

When you, the speaker, give something to someone, use ใ‚ใ’ใ‚‹ ageru.


ใ“ใ‚Œใ‚’ใ€€ใ‚ใชใŸใซใ€€ใ‚ใ’ใพใ™ใ€‚

kore wo anata ni agemasu.
I will give you this.


NOTE: The receiver is the one with the ใซ ni particle (ใ‚ใชใŸใซ anata ni - to you).



The Word: ใใ‚Œใ‚‹ kureru

This is also usually translated as โ€œgiveโ€ but it is from the receiverโ€™s point of view.

็”ฐไธญใ•ใ‚“ใŒใ€€ใ“ใ‚Œใ‚’ใ€€็งใซใ€€ใใ‚Œใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

tanaka san ga kore wo watashi ni kuremashita.
Tanaka gave this to me.


NOTE: Again, the receiver is the one with the ใซ ni particle. (็งใซ watashi ni to me)



The Word: ใ‚‚ใ‚‰ใ† morau

ใ‚‚ใ‚‰ใ† morau is used from the perspective of the receiver.

็งใŒใ€€ๅ‹้”ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€€ใ‚ฑใƒผใ‚ญใ‚’ใ€€ใ‚‚ใ‚‰ใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

watashi ga tomodachi kara ke-ki omoraimashita.

I received a cake from a friend. (My, the receiver, point of view)


NOTE: If ใ‹ใ‚‰ kara is used, the meaning should be pretty clear (ๅ‹้”ใ‹ใ‚‰ tomodachi kara from a freind), but you can also use ใซ ni to show who is doing the action as in:

็งใŒใ€€ๅ‹้”ใซใ€€ใ‚ฑใƒผใ‚ญใ‚’ใ€€ใ‚‚ใ‚‰ใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

watashi ga tomodachi ni ke-ki wo moraimashita.
I received a cake from a friend.


NOTE: The use of ใซ ni with ใ‚‚ใ‚‰ใ† morau can seem confusing considering ใซ ni is used to mean the receiver in the two previous examples, but the ็งใŒ sets who the receiver is.

96

Add ใ• sa to adjectives to express a degree or amount.


Construction: -i adjectives:
Remove the trailing ใ„ i and add ใ• sa:

ใžใ†ใ•ใ‚“ใฎใ€€้ซ˜ใ•ใฏใ€€ใฉใฎใใ‚‰ใ„ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

zou san no takasa wa dono kurai desu ka?
What is the height of an elephant?


NOTE: The ใ• sa shows a degree; this can be a higher, lower, wider, thinner, etcโ€”some amount.


Construction: -na adjectives:
Just add the ใ• sa without the ใช na

ใ“ใฎ่ปŠใ€€ใฎใ€€้™ใ‹ใ•ใฏใ€€้ฉšใในใใ€€ใ‚‚ใฎใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

kono kuruma no shizukasa wa odoroku beki mono desu.
This carโ€™s quietness is amazing.


NOTE: The finished product (adjective + ใ• sa) becomes a noun phrase and is treated as a noun grammatically.


97

97. Just Did...โ€”ใฐใ‹ใ‚Š bakari

There are other uses for ใฐใ‹ใ‚Š bakari, but today, letโ€™s look at it as showing a completed action: โ€œjust...โ€


Construction:
Add ใฐใ‹ใ‚Š bakari after the simple past of a verb

้ฃŸในใŸใ€€ใฐใ‹ใ‚Šใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

tabeta bakari desu.
I just ate.


ใŸใฆใŸใ€€ใฐใ‹ใ‚Šใฎใ€€ๅฎถใ€‚

tateta bakari no ie.
A newly built house.


ไปŠใ€€ๆฅใŸใ€€ใฐใ‹ใ‚Šใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

ima kita bakari desu.
I just arrived.

98

Potential form of Verbs is used to show ability to do something.


Construction: The ~u Group (group 1 verbs)
Verb Root + eru / emasu

  • ๆ›ธใ kaku to write > kak (verb root) > kakeru (or kakemasu) - able to write


ๆผขๅญ—ใŒใ€€ๆ›ธใ‘ใพใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

kanji ga kakemasu ka?
Can you write kanji?

[NOTE: use ใŒ ga with the potential form]



Construction: The ~ru Group (group 2 verbs)
Verb Root + rareru / raremasu

  • ้ฃŸในใ‚‹ taberu to eat > tabe (verb root) > taberareru (or taberaremasu) able to eat


ใƒ”ใƒผใƒžใƒณใŒใ€€้ฃŸในใ‚‰ใ‚Œใพใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

pi-man ga taberaremasu ka?

Can you (Are you able to) eat green peppers?



Construction: The irregular Group (group 3 verbs)
The two irregular verbs should be memorized:

  • ใใ‚‹ kuru becomes ใ“ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹ korareru
  • ใ™ใ‚‹ suru becomes ใงใใ‚‹ dekiru


ใƒ‘ใƒผใƒ†ใ‚ฃใซใ€€ใ“ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใพใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

pa-ti ni koraremasu ka?
Can you come to the party?


NOTE: You can also easily do this with any simple past verb + ใ“ใจใŒใงใใ‚‹ koto ga dekiru.


ใ€€Rules for creating potential form:

ใ€€ใ€€ใƒปFor ru-verbs: Replace the ใ‚‹ with ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹

ใ€€ใ€€    Ex. ๅฏ(ใญ)ใ‚‹ โ†’ ๅฏ(ใญ)ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹

ใ€€ใ€€ใƒปFor u-verbs: Change the last character from 

           a / u / vowel sound to the equivalent / e / 

           vowel sound and add ใ‚‹.

                Ex. ่ฒท(ใ‹)ใ† โ†’ ่ฒท(ใ‹)ใˆ โ†’ ่ฒท(ใ‹)ใˆใ‚‹

    ใƒปExceptions:

            1. ใ™ใ‚‹ becomes ใงใใ‚‹

ใ€€ใ€€   2. ใใ‚‹ becomes ใ“ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹

ใ€€ใ€€Note: All potential verbs become ru-verbs.

99

99. Nouns into Adjectivesโ€”็š„ teki

In some very useful cases, you can turn nouns into adjectives. You should learn examples by heart since you canโ€™t just stick ็š„ teki anywhere.


็ง‘ๅญฆ kagakuโ€”science (noun)

็ง‘ๅญฆ็š„ kagakutekiโ€”scientific (adjective)



ๆญดๅฒ rekishiโ€”history (noun)

ๆญดๅฒ็š„ rekishitekiโ€”historical (adjective)



OTHER EXAMPLES:

ๅŠนๆžœ koukaโ€”effect

ๅŠนๆžœ็š„ kouka tekiโ€”effective; successful


ๆ—ฅๆœฌ nihonโ€”Japan
ๆ—ฅๆœฌ็š„ nihon tekiโ€”Japanese-like; typically Japanese


And here is one more useful word:


็›ฎ็š„ mokutekiโ€”purpose; goal; aim

100

100. The Explanatory โ€œใ‚“ใงใ™ n desuโ€

You may have heard this quite a lot and wondered what itโ€™s all about! It is most often used, informally, to:


1) Explain something
2) Show emphasis


ใ‚“ใงใ™ n desu is short for ใฎใงใ™ no desu; informal usage


Plain form verb + ใ‚“ใงใ™ n desu


ไฝ•ใ‚’ใ€€ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ‚“ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€€ใ‹ใ€‚

nani wo shite iru n desu ka.
Whatcha doing?


ใƒ†ใƒฌใƒ“ใ‚’ใ€€่ฆ‹ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ‚“ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

terebi wo mite iru n desu.
Watching TV.


-i Adjective + n desu


ใ“ใฎใ€€ๆ˜ ็”ปใฏใ€€้ข็™ฝใ„ใ‚“ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

kono eiga wa omoshiroi n desu.
This movie was great!


And it can be used as a way to stress a point:


ใƒ‘ใƒผใƒ†ใ‚ฃใซใ€€่กŒใ‹ใชใ„ใ€€ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚

pa-ti ni ikanai deshou.
You wonโ€™t be able to make it to the party, right?


ใ„ใ„ใˆใ€ๅƒ•ใฏใ€€่กŒใใ‚“ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€‚

iie, boku wa iku n desu.
No, Iโ€™m going!


ใ„ใฃใŸใ„ใ€ใฉใ†ใ—ใŸใ‚“ใ€€ใงใ™ใ€€ใ‹๏ผŸ

ittai, doushita n desu.
Just what exactly happened (to you)!!!?


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