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Ko-So-A-Do

The ko-so-a-do may seem difficult to grasp, but they are very regular. Learning them early on will definitely help with your progress.

The key is to understand the three positions:

  1. Near the speaker [the "k" words]
  2. Near the listener [the "s" words]
  3. Away from both [the "a" words]

The fourth, "d" words," are the question words.


 ABOUT: 

These mean the same as これ、それ、あれ、 and どれ. The only difference is these demonstratives must be attached to nouns. In English, we would translate both
これ and この as "this," but in Japanese, これ stands alone and この attaches to a noun.


Compare:
This is a cat. これは、(ねこ)です。
This cat is black. この(ねこ)は、(くろ)いです。

How to Use:  

Attach to any noun.

この+NOUN

This (something) [for objects near the speaker]

その+NOUN

That (something) [for objects near the listener]

あの+NOUN

That (something) over there  [for objects far from both people]

どの+NOUN

Which (something)?

 Examples:

この(ほん)面白(おもしろ)いですか?
Is this book interesting?
[an object near the speaker]

あ、その(ほん)まあまあ面白(おもしろ)いです。
Ah, that book is kinda interesting.
[Uses その because it is far from this speaker. まあまあ means "so-so."]

じゃあ、あの(ほん)は?
Well, how about that book over there?
[an object far from both speakers]

どの(ほん)ですか?
Which book?



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