June 29, 2021

JLPT N5 Grammar: Time ~時


~()  hour [一時(いちじ) 1:00]
~時半(じはん) half hour [一時半(いちじはん) 1:30]
~(ふん)  minutes [一分(いっぷん) one minute (notice the sound change: ippun)]
~ごろ about; around [一時(いちじ)ごろ around 1:00]
午前(ごぜん) A.M.; morning [午前八時(ごぜんはちじ) 8 A.M.]
午後(ごご) P.M.; afternoon [午後八時(ごごはちじ) 8 P.M.])


HOURS ~: Add "ji" after numbers to give the hour of the day. is the counter for hours.

HALF HOURS ~時半(じはん): Add after numbers to show the half hour. (はん) means "half." You'll see this kanji in words like 半島(はんとう) (peninsula—half an island) and 半額(はんがく) (half price—a sale)



ABOUT ~ごろ: To show approximation, add ごろ after the hour.

about 2 o'clock
[You can write numbers in kanji or with numerals.]

MINUTES ~分: Add after numbers to give the minutes. While the pronunciation is ふん, it can also be ぷん depending on what number it follows. is the counter for minutes. Pay attention to the bold variations below:)

The good news is, these patterns just repeat themselves.

So, if you want 11 minutes, it is 11(じゅういっ)(ぷん). And 18 minutes can be either 18(じゅはっ)(ぷん) or 18(じゅうはち)(ふん).

Here are a few time examples:

(ろく)()(ろっ)(ぷん) is the same thing as 6:06. [Notice the second "6" has a small っ when before 分. "Roppun" instead of "rokupun."]

(いち)()59(ごじゅうきゅう)(ふん) is the same thing as 1:59.

Note: (いち)()30(さんじゅっ)(ぷん) is the same thing as (いち)時半(じはん) .

午前~: Add before the hour to mean AM, the morning.

1 AM

11:30 AM

午後~: Add before the hour to mean PM, the afternoon.

1 PM

11:30 PM

Note: Although you can use 午前(ごぜん) (AM) and 午後(ごご) (PM), 24 hour military time is often used in Japan.

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