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誰が勝った?俺だ! Who won? I did!

  • 誰が【だれが】who (was the one) 
  • [誰 (who) が (subject marker)]
  • 勝った【かった】won [past of 勝つ【かつ】 (to win)]
  • 俺【おれ】I; me [male pronoun; somewhat rude; not something a child would say!]
  • だ did[simple of です]

kyou mo tanoshikatta
today | also | was fun
Today was fun as always

• 今日【きょう】today
• も also [implies past days were also fun]
• 楽しかった【たのしかった】was fun [past of 楽しい (fun; enjoyable)]

Unlike English, adjectives are conjugated in Japanese. 楽(たの)しい is an -I adjective which is conjugated like this:
楽しい (fun; enjoyable) [the plain form retains the い]
楽しかった (was fun) [drop the い and add かった]
楽しくない (isn’t fun) [drop the い and add くない]
楽しくなかった (was not fun) [drop the い and add くなかった]

megane ga nai to nanimo mienai. anta dare?
Without my glasses, I can't see anything. Who are you?

  • メガネ eyeglasses
  • がない without; no (glasses)
  • と and [cause and effect: without glasses ... can't see]
  • 何も【なにも】 nothing [used with a negative verb]
  • 見えない【みえない】can't see; unable to see [past potential of 見る (to see)]
  • あんた you [can be rude; use あなた instead]
  • 誰【だれ】who

And where is today's tribute?

* 今日の【きょうの】today's
• 貢ぎ物【みつぎもの】tribute [In addition to historical tributes between states, this is used today in a religious context (gift to God) or societal (gift to boss; gift to yakuza boss) or with sarcasm; often used with this verb: 貢(みつ)ぎ物(もの)を捧(ささ)げます]
* は [this is the topic marker. It indicates there is something unspoken: "Where is it?"]

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